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group of cells that all do the same job
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made up of groups of tissues
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movement of particles from a high concentrated to a low
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biological catalysts
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enzyme; amylase
1. found in mouth 2. acts on insoluble starch 3. product: glucose
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enzyme; protease
1. found in stomach, small intestine 2. acts on proteins 3. product; amino acids
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enzyme; lipase
1. found in small intestine 2. acts on lipids 3. product: fatty acids
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What happens to an enzyme when it hots up?
1. the enzyme becomes denatured 2. substrate can no longer fit and reaction can not take place
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aerobic respiration equation
glucose + oxygen > co2 + water + energy
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what happens energy is released during respiration?
1. build larger molecules 2. mammals,birds = constant body temp 3. plants = builds sugars and other nutrients into amino acids = proteins
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what happens in digestive system?
1. hydrochloric acid is produced 2. liver produces bile, stored in gall bladder before passing down into small intestine 3. bile neutralises the acid added in stomach 4. bile is then emulsified
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3 limiting factors that decrease rate of photosynthesis
1. shortage of sunlight 2. shortage of co2 3. low temperature
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what can measure quantitative data by
1. random sampling using a quadrat 2. sampling along a transect
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photosynthesis equation
co2 + water > glucose + oxygen
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process where plants make their own food
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both alleles are the same
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different alleles
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molecule containing coded information that determines inherited characteristics
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length of DNA that codes for protein, combining with amino acids
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what are the two alleles
1. dominant 2. recessive
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made of long proteins called DNA
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how many chromosomes in an human body cell
46 chromosomes
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cystic fibrosis
disorder of the cell membrane caused by recessive allele
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HUntington's disease
disorder of the nervous system caused by dominant allele
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what contains proteases and lipases to digest protein and fat stains
biological detergents
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what pre-digest the protein in baby foods in industry
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what does carbohydrase do in the industry
convert starch into glucose
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what converts glucose syrup into fructose?
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3 differences between animal & plants
1. no cell wall 2. small vacuoles 3. no chloroplasts
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red blood cell
substance that carries oxygen
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controls everything in the cell
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chemical reactions take place
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cell membrane
gives cell shape & controls substances that leave and enter cell
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proteins are made
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releases energy from respiration for the cell
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cell wall
strengthens the cell
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found in cytoplasm. absorb light energy to make food by photosynthesis
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large sac in the centre of the cytoplasm
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Leaf Structure
1. water and salt absorbed through xylem tubes 2. co2 enters the leaf by diffusions through stomata 3. glucose used through respiration to give plants their own energy 4. excess glucose stored in leaves as insoluble starch
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3 characteristics of leaves
1. large surface area absorb light 2. thin shape, diffuse 3. chloroplasts, containing chlorphyll 4. veins carrying substance to and from
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2 gametes fuse together
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cell division making all body cells except gametes
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structure of mitosis
1. before cell divides, makes a second set 2. each chromosome makes a copy of itself 3. each new cell has same genetic information
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cell division involving gametes
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structure of meiosis
1. cells in reproductive organs divide to form gametes 2. cells in ovaries divide by meiosis 3. copies of chromosome made 4. cell divides twice to form four gametes, each with single set
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what do body cells divide by
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3 ways extinction could be caused
1. new disease kill all memebers of specie 2. environment changes over time 3. new competitor
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species which once existed has died out
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remains of organisms from years ago found in rocks
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3 ways fossils are formed
1. from hard parts of organisms that have not decayed 2. parts of organisms replaced 3. preserved traces of organsims
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enzyme; amylase


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