Biology

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  • Created by: Tina
  • Created on: 07-05-14 17:42
What are the organelles used to 'crank out' 1: fats 2: proteins and 3: energy
1: smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 2: rough endoplasmic reticulum. 3: mitochondira
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How is 1: water, 2: nutrients and 3: oxygen pumped out of a cell?
1: osmosis. 2: facilitated diffusion with channel proteins. 3: simple diffusion
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Location and place of cells that control the heartbeat?
SAN (right atrium wall)
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Immunity via B and T cells
Engulfed by macrophage - T cells activated - makes T helper cells - cytokines - activates B memory and effector cells - plasma cells - release antibodies - memory cells = reactivate faster upon second invasion
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How could blood serum block polio virus?
Antibodies are found in plasma and binds to antigens on virus
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What stage are animals used in drug development?
Pre-clinical trials
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Differences between bacteria and viruses
Virus: DNA/RNA, strand, smaller, protein capsid. Bacteria: DNA, loop, bigger, no capsid
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How HIV infects
HIV GP120 attaches to CD4 receptor cells and viral RNA is taken inside. The RNA is incorporated into the hosts DNA by reverse transcriptase. Transcribed and translated by integrase and bud out taking some membrane with it.
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Part of the cell cycle that got shortened in HeLa cells?
G1S and G2 shortended
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Why is it effective to turn of dominant gene for diseases?
Turn off gene = stops protein synthesis
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How were researchers able to used hybrid HeLa cells to identify which chromosomes carry specific genes?
Record which human chromosome disappears from hybrid. Record which trait disappears. If both chromosome and trait disappear, then it is responsible.
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DNA amplification
90-95'C: DNA separate. 55'C: Primers added. 75'C: DNA polymerease added. Repeat
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Gel electrophoresis
DNA (introns) split up using restriction enzymes. Placed on agerose. Have a negative charge. Turn charge on and it moves to the positive end. DNA separates. Southern Blotting on nylon/ nitrocellulose. DNA probes.
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Correlation
2 factors linked but dont cause each other.
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Causation (casual relationship)
One causes the other.
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Ethical frameworks
Utilitarianism: the way in which most benefit. Absolutist: never. Relativist: sometimes
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Speciation
Formation of a new species that can not reproduce fertile offspring. Caused by reproduction isolation. (eg: types: geographical isolation).
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Natural selection
Mutation. Variation. Change in environment. Those with desired allele are more likely to survive and reproduce. That allele becomes more popular
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Antibody structure
.
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Cell cycle
.
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Fertilisation
.
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Mitosis
.
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Protein transport
.
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Control of gene expression by transcription factors
.
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Genetic modification
.
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Fuel cell
Convert energy from reaction of a fuel with O2 into a voltage energy.
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Making H2
Born Haber cycle. Electrolysis
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Bidentate
2 pairs of lone electrons donated from 2 oxygen atoms.
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Card 2

Front

How is 1: water, 2: nutrients and 3: oxygen pumped out of a cell?

Back

1: osmosis. 2: facilitated diffusion with channel proteins. 3: simple diffusion

Card 3

Front

Location and place of cells that control the heartbeat?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Immunity via B and T cells

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How could blood serum block polio virus?

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