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What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic acid
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How does DNA work
Iit contains all instructions to put an organism together and make it work
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Where is DNA found in plants and animals?
In the nucleus
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What are Chromosomes?
Really long molecules where DNA is found
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What is a gene?
A section of DNA
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How many chromosomes do body cells normally have?
2 of each chromosome - from the mother
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What is Mitosis?
When a cell copies itself by splitting to form two identical offspring
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Explain the process of Mitosis
It starts of with a cell with 2 sets of chromosomes - The DNA is copied and forms X chromosomes. The cell divides and 2 new cells are made.
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What type of Reproduction uses MItosis?
Asexual Reproduction
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What is the offspring like with Mitosis?
They have exactly the same gene as the parent - no variation
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Gametes are...
Sex cells e.g. Sperm cells and egg cells
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What is Meiosis?
Where cells in reproductive organs - testis and ovaries - divide to from gametes
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How many sets of chromosomes do gametes have?
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Explain the process of Meiosis
Gametes combine to form a new individual - The sperm fertilises egg and join to form new body cell - A new cell grows by diving by mitosis- New individual will have mixture of 2 sets of chromosomes
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What is differentiation?
The process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job
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What is the difference between animal cells and plant cells with differentiation?
In animal cells, ability to differentiate is lost at early stage. PLants cells never lose ability to differentiat
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What a Stem cells?
Cells that can develop into different types of cell - undifferentiated
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What are the 2 main stem cell types?
Embryonic and Adult stem cells
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Give 2 statements about Embryonic and Adult stem cells
Adult - unspecialised cells found in animals, they can turn into many cell types(butnotall) Embryonic - unspecialised, found in early embryos, can turn into any kind of cell
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How could stem cells cure diseases?
Could be used to replace faulty cells in sick people or could ,make nerve cells fro people paralysed by injuries to spine
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Why is using stem cells to cure diseases still a bit of a hit and miss?
Because lots more research is needed
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What are some arguments against using embryos?
Some people feel embryos shouldnt be used for experiments, because they are life - Embryos would probs be destroyed if not used for research, that destroying life
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How many pairs of chromosomes are there in every human body cell?
23 pairs
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What are the 23rd pair labelled as and which is which?
XX and XY - XX = girl and XY = boy
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What do genetic diagrams show?
They show the probability of having a girl or a boy
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Different genes control the development of different characteristics. TRUE/FALSE
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What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene
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Alleles can be...
Dominant or Recessive
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What did Gregor menel study?
He studied how characteristics in plants were passed on from parents to their offspring
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What is Cystic Fibrosis?
A genetic disorder of the cell membranes
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What is is caused by?
A faulty recessive allele of a single gene
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What are carriers?
People with only one copy of the allele but dont show the symptoms of the disorder
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What is Polydactyly?
A genetic disorder where a baby is born with extra fngers or toes
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What allele is it caused by?
The dominant allele of a single gene
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How does DNA work


Iit contains all instructions to put an organism together and make it work

Card 3


Where is DNA found in plants and animals?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are Chromosomes?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a gene?


Preview of the front of card 5
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