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  • Created by: Jenna
  • Created on: 04-05-14 13:51
What do plant cells have that animal cells don't?
Plant cells have a rigid cell wall, chloroplasts that contains chlorophyll and a permanent vacuole
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What is a yeast cell and what does it contain?
A yeast cell is a single celled organism that contains a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall. They can survive with little oxygen because they can use aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
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If a cell has many mitochondria...
it must need a lot of energy
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If a cell has many ribosomes...
it must be making a lot of protein
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What is an example of diffusion?
The diffusion of oxygen and glucose into the cells of the body from the bloodstream for respiration
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What is the meaning of hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic?
Hypertonic is a solution which is more concentrated, hypotonic is a solution which is more dilute. If two solutions have the same concentration then they are isotonic
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Why is active transport usefull?
Because cells are able to absorb ions from dilute solutions
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How do organisms adapt to reach oxgen and food?
Small organisms have a large surface area to volume ratio. Large complex organisms have special exchange sufaces. These surfaces have a large surface area, thin walls or short diffusion path and an efficient transport system.
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What are villi and what do they do?
The villi line the inner surface of the small intestine and are an exchange surface for food. The villi are finger like projections that increase the surface area for absorption.
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Explain the process of MITOSIS?
Mitosis results in two identical cells being produced. As cell division starts a copy of each chromosome is made. The cell divides in two to form two identical daughter cells. Each cell has a nucleus containing four chromosomes.
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What is the process of MEIOSIS?
A cell in the reproductive organs starts to divide. The chromosomes are copied. The cells then divide in two and imediatly divide again. This gives four sex cells each with a single set of chromosomes
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What is an embryo?
An embryo is formed when an egg and sperm fuse to form a zygote and this cell then divides many times to form a ball of cells. The inner layer of the ball is the embryonic stem cells.
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What are the causes of cancer?
Carcinogens are cancer causing chemicals such as asbestos and chemicals in tabacco smoke. Ionising radiation such as uv light and xray can cause cancer tumours to form
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Describe the tissues in a plant?
The epidermal layer covers the plant. The palisade mesophyll contains chloroplast and can photosynthesis. The spongy mesophyll contains some chloroplasts lots of air spaces and a large surface area for the diffusion of gas.
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What are the parts of the digestive system?
Glands-such as the pancreas produce digestive juices containing enzymes. The stomach and small intestine where digestion occurs. The liver where bile is produces. The small intestine where the absorption of soluble food occurs. The large intestine...
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What are proteins?
Proteins are made of long chains of amino acids. They are folded to form a specific shape that other molucules can fit into these specific shapes. Each protein has a specific function.
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What are enzymes?
Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions. They are large proteins and have an active site which allows other molucules to fit in. They can build large molucules from small one, change one molecule into another, break down molecules.
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What factors affect enzymes?
If the temperature is too hot the enzymes denatures. Each enzyme works at a particular ph level. If this is wrong then the enzyme also denatures.
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What is a use of and enzyme?
Protease and lipase are used in biological detergents. They digest food stains and work at lower temperatures then ordinary washing powder. This saves energy and money spent on electricity.
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What happens when we breathe in?
The intercostal muscles contract moving the ribcage up and out. The muscles of the diaphram contract and the diaphram flattens. The volume of the thorax increases and the pressure decreases drawing air in.
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What are three reasons why a person cannot get enough oxygen into their blood stream?
If the alveoli are damaged the surface area is reduced. If the tubes leading to the lungs are narrowed. If the person is paralysed then their muscles cannot pull the ribcage up and down.
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What can the energy from aerobic respiration be used for?
It can be used by the organisms to build larger molucules from smaller ones, enable muscle contraction in animals, maintain a constant body temperature,active transport, build sugars and other nitrates into amino acids.
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Why does your heart rate increase when you exercise?
It allows more oxygen and glucose to reach the muscles.
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When does anaerobic repiration kick in?
If your muscles are used over a long time then they will get tired and stop contracting efficiently. If your muscles cannot get enough oxygen they start to respire anaerobically.
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Describe the chambers of the heart?
There are four chambers of the heart. The left atria recieve blood from the pulmonary artery. The atrium contracts and moves the blood to the ventricle which then contracts and moves the blood to the aorta to be pumped round the body. On the right...
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Where is the natural pacemaker located?
It is located in the right atrium in an area called the sinoatrial node.
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Describe the structure and function of capillaries
The capillaries are narrow thin walled vessels. There walls are a single cell thick. They carry blood through the organs and allow the exchange of substances with all the living cells in the body.
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What is transported in the blood plasma?
The blood plasma transports carbondioxide from the organs to the lungs, soluble products of digestion from the small intestine to other organs and urea from the liver to the kidney where urine is produced.
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How can you limit the risk of rejection after an organ transplant?
By matching the blood groups and tissue type of the donor and treating the recipient with immunosuppressant drugs to suppress the immune system you lower the risk of rejection.
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Where is amylase produced?
Amylase is produced in the salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine. Amylase speeds up the digestion of starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine.
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What is the purpose of bile?
Bile nutralises the stomach acid, makes the conditions in the small intestine slightly alkaline and emulsifies fats to increase the surface area of the fats for lipase enzymes to act on.
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What is the purpose of motor nurones
Motor neurones carry impulses from the CNS to the effector organs which are either mucles or glands.
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What are the steps involeved in reflex actions?
Firstly the receptor detects a stimuli. The sensory neurone then sends an impilses to the CNS. A relay neurone passes the impulse on to the motor neurone. The impulse then passes to the effector and the action is taken.
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What are the functions of the different parts of the brain?
The cerebral cortex controls memory, intelligence and language. The cerebellum controls movement. The Mendulla controls your heartbeat and breathing. The pituitary gland produces hormones such as ADH.
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Card 2


What is a yeast cell and what does it contain?


A yeast cell is a single celled organism that contains a nucleus, cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall. They can survive with little oxygen because they can use aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Card 3


If a cell has many mitochondria...


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


If a cell has many ribosomes...


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is an example of diffusion?


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