Biology 3 topic 1

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What is Photoperiodism?
The response of a plant that changes as day length changes
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Give one example of Photoperiodism and explain it (1)
Germination --> not really affected by daylight but more the season as conditions are better for growing thing in (spring).
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Give one example of Photoperiodism and explain it (2)
Growth --> Plants stop growing in winter. Some trees lose their leaves.
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Give one example of Photoperiodism and explain it (3)
Repoduction --> Plant produce flowers during different seasons. Some in summer because of the longer days. Some because the days get shorter (autumn).
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What is Circadian Rhythm?
A pattern of behaviour that changes over a 24 hour period.
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What is a Circadian Rhythm controlled by?
An internal biological clock
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What can affect Circadian Rhythm?
External factors like night, day help to match the clock changes in the environment (Jet Lag)
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Name 2 Plant defences
1)Poison to kill pests 2)Chemicals that kill pathogens
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What do we use digoxin for?
To treat heart disease
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What do we use Quinine for?
To treat malaria
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What do we use Aspirin?
To relieve symptoms e.g. Fever
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What can pathogens do to plants?
They can reduce the yeild of the crops and therefore the amount of food supplied
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What did Louis Pasteur do?
He carried out experiments which show that once microorganisms are destroyed, they do not suddenly appear again.
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What did Louis Pasteurs work lead to?
Aseptic techniques that we use to prevent spoilage of food and in surgery.
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What did Louis Pasteur find out?
That a swan neck beaker didn't spoil after 4 days because they settle at the bottom of the neck and therefore don't get into the broth.
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What graph is bacteria growth?
Exponential growth.
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What did Edward Jenner do?
Gave a boy cowpox and after he recovered, he gave him smallpox but the boy wasn't affected.
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Explain immunisation
1) a vaccine is created containing weak or dead pathogens 2) a lymphocyte with an antibody that fits the antigen is activated. 3) Lymphocytes divide 4) some secrete antibodies others remain as memory lymphocytes
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What are the risks of immunisation?
1) Some people get a mild reaction 2) very rarely a person will get a harmful reaction
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What are the advantages of immunisation?
1) immunity produced with out being ill. 2) Immunity lasts a long time. 3) if loads of people are immune, unvaccinated people are less likely to get it.
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What are monoclonal antibodies?
Antibodies that carry useful chemicals, markers or treatments. A set are identical cause they are produced in large quantities from the same hybridoma cells.
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What are Hybridoma cells?
Formed by fusing a Blymphocyte with a cancer cell. They divide to produce antibodies that are all the same.
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Name 3 uses for monoclonal antibodies.
1)In pregnacy tests to identify if the pregnancy hormone is present. 2)To stick on blood clots and cancer cells to detect them so they can be treated.
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What products are removed through the kidneys?
Carbon dioxide from respiration. The break down of excess amino acids in the liver to produce urea.
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What do the renal veins do?
Carry clean blood back to the body.
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What do the ureters do?
Carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
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What happens at the uretha?
Urine flows through the uretha to the outside of the body.
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What does the renal arteries do?
Carry the blood from the body to the kidneys.
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What do the kidneys do?
Remove substances including urea from the blood and make urine.
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What are the main treatments of kidney failiure?
Kidney dialysis and Organ donation.
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What are inside the kidneys?
Nephrons.
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What is the Glomerulus?
A small knot of capillaries.
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What happens at bowman's capsule?
Filtration of small molecules from the water including water, glucose, salts and urea.
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What happens at the loop of Henle?
Selective reabsorbtion of glucose as it can be used again.
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What happens at the collecting duct?
Reabsorbtion of water that the body needs (osmoregulation).
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What controls the amount of water that is reabsorbed?
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).
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What kind of feedback is osmoregulation?
Negative feedback (a change in the system causes the opposite change to happen to restore it to a 'normal' level).
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How long does the menstrual cycle last?
28 days.
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What happens inbetween day 1 and 7 of the menstrual cycle?
Menstruation (the breakdown of the uterus lining).
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What happens inbetween day 8 and 14 of the menstrual cycle?
The uterus lining it built back up
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What happens around day 14 in the menstrual cycle?
Ovulation (an egg is released from the ovaries)
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What happens inbetween day 14 and 16 of the menstrual cycle?
These are the days that fertilisation are most likely to take place.
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What happens inbetween day 16 and 28 of the menstrual cycle?
The uterus lining is maintained. If the egg is fertilised the lining carries on being maintained.
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Why is the uterus lining maintained if the egg becomes fertilised?
The embryo needs to embed itself in the thick uterus lining so it can get nutrients from the mother.
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What are the 4 hormones in the mentrual cycle?
Oestrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH
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Why is the mentrual cycle a form of negative feedback?
Changes caused by the release of one hormone stops the secretion of other hormones.
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Name 4 infertility treatments.
1) IVf (in virto fertilisation) 2) Egg donation 3) Surrogate mother 4) Hormones
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Name an advantage and disadvantage for IVF
Useful if the man produces only a few healthy sperm. IVF babies can be born early which can cause problems at birth or later life.
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Name an advantage and disadvantage for Egg donations
useful if the woman has no eggs in her ovaries. Hormones used to get egg can cause a bad reaction and the mother may want to access the child.
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Name an advantage and disadvantage for Surrogacy
Used when the woman cannot grow an embryo in her uterus. May find it hard to hand over the baby.
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Name an advantage and disadvantage for Hormones.
Used when the womens hormones are not enough to cause ovulation. Greater risk of having several babies at one time and these babies tend to be born early where problems can arise.
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When is the sex determined for a baby?
At fertilisation.
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Why do human eggs all contain one X chromosone?
There is always an X from the mother cause girls cromosones are XX.
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Why are men more likely to have a sex-linked disorder?
Sex-linked disorders are carried by genes from the X chromosones and men only have one X chromosone.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give one example of Photoperiodism and explain it (1)

Back

Germination --> not really affected by daylight but more the season as conditions are better for growing thing in (spring).

Card 3

Front

Give one example of Photoperiodism and explain it (2)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give one example of Photoperiodism and explain it (3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Circadian Rhythm?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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