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What is biotechnology
large-scale, industrial / commercial use (of living organisms / enzymes)
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Give 3 uses of biotechnology and examples of fungus/bacteria involved
1. To produce food: cheese, yogurt using bacteria lactobacilus which changes texture and flavour. 2. Medicinal use ie to make drugs like penicillin - fungus - penicillium. 3. In industry - to make useful enzymes -calcium citrate used in detergents.
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What is aspesis and why is it important to limit unwanted organsisms in a culture
Asepsis is absence of unwanted micro-organisms because they: compete with culture organsims for space, reduce yield of useful products, cause spoilage and produce toxic chemicals.
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Aseptic techniques at lab and starter culture level
1. All apparatus sterilised before/ after use by heating with flame until glowing or with UV light. 2. Carried out in fume cupboard as air circulation carries away airborne contaminants. 3.Cultures of microorganisms kept closed, away from surface.
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Aseptic techniques at large scale level
1. Washing, disinfecting and steam cleaning the fermenter and pipes when not in use and removes excess nutrient medium and kills microorganisms. 2. Fermenter surfaces made of polished stainless steel prevent microbes from sticking to the surface.
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Aseptic techniques at large scale level (2 more)
3. Fine filters on inlet and outlet pipes avoid microorganisms entering or leaving the fermentation vessels. 2. Sterilizing all nutrient media before adding to fermenter prevents introduction of contaminants
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State meaning of the term immobilised enzyme and name 4 different methods to immobilise
Enzymes that are attached to an insoluble material. 1, Gel entrapment. 2. Membrane separation. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Adsorbtion.
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Describe process of covalent bonding enzymes
Covalent bonding - cross linking enzymes to each other and to clay using cross linking agent eg. gluteraldehyde . Enzyme molecules cov bonding to clay - does not immobilize large quantities but binding very strong so little leakage.
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Describe process of adsorbtion enzymes
Adsorbtion enxyme molecules mixed with immobilising support and bind as hydrophobic interactions. Adsorbing agents = porous carbon or clay. Binding forces not strong so enzyme could detach.
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Describe process of entrapment
Entrapment - enzymes trapped in a gel bead or cellulose fibres. Enzymes trapped in natural state .Reaction rate reduced as substrate molecules need to get through trapping barrier as active site less available
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Why are immobilised enzymes used in large scale production
Extraction of enzyme from fermentation mixture = downstream processing. Advantage of immmobilised: downsreaming costs low. 2. Enzymes available for re-use. 3 less susspetable to change in ph/ temp -immobilisng matrix protects enzyme molecucles.
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Disadvantages of immobilised enzymes
1. Immobilisation requires time, equipment, materials so more expensive. 2. Immobilised enzymes less active as don't mix freely with substrate. 3. Any contamination costly as whole system needs to be stopped
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Conditions manipulated in asepsis
Temperature - if too hot enzymes denatured, too cool and growth is slowed. 2. Time and type of nutrient - growth of micro-organism requires nutrients including carbon, nitrogen. 3. Oxygen conc - lack of 02 leeds to unwanted products of anareobic res
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Conditions manipulated in asepsis
xygen conc - lack of 02 leeds to unwanted products of anareobic respiration. pH - changes in ph within fermentation tank can reduce enzyme activity and growth rates.
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Features of involuntary muscle
Involuntary (smooth) contraction under autonomic control. Contracts slowly and fatigues slowly. Short spindle cells each with a single nucleus. Unstriated appearance.
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Features of voluntary muscle
Voluntary (skeletal) - Contraction under voluntary nervous system. Contracts quickly and fatigues quickly. Cells form multinucleate fibres. Striated appearance .
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Features of cardiac muscle
Cardiac - contraction is myogenic and under autonomic nervous system. contracts quickly does not fatigue. striated. cells form branched fibres sith intercallated discs.
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Explain how the fight or flight response is coordinated by nervous and endocrine system.
Hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituiry glad to release corticosteroid releasing factor. Pituitary gland secretes hormone ACTH which arives at adrenal glands releasing 30 hormones to enter bloodstream.
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Explain how the fight or flight response is coordinated by nervous and endocrine system.
Hypothalamus activates sympathetic NS. Adrenal medulla activated and releases adrenaline, many tissues have receptors for adrenaline so many responses ie heart rate increased and blood pressure increased, pupils dilate,blood glucose levels increase,
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How is the ATP supply maintained in muscles
Transfer from creatine phosphate in muscle cell sarcoplasm. Phosphate group from creatine phosphate can be transferred to ADP to form ATP. Enzyme creatine phosphotreansferase needed. Aerobic respiration in mitochondria regenerate ATP
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Differences between synapse and neuromuscular junction
Synapse = neurone to neurone. NMJ= neurone to sarcomere. Synpase = Postsynaptic stimulation leads to action potential in postsynaptic neurone where as post synaptic stimulation leads to depolarisation of sarcolema muscle contraction.
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Similarities between synapse and neuromuscular junction
Neurotransmitter located in vesicles in presynaptic cytoplasm. Vesicles release neurotransmitter into cleft on stimulation. Neurotransmitter diffuses across the gap and binds to post synaptic membrane receptor. Enzymes degrade neurotransmitter
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Briefly outline process of nuclear transfer
1. Somatic cell fused with enucleated egg from another goat. 2. Electric shock cell embryo grown in vitro or in tied oviduct to 16 cell embryo and then implanted to surrogate mothers.
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What is non reproductive cloning
Use of Stem cells to generate replacement cells tissues or organs to treat a disease ie after heart attak
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

1. To produce food: cheese, yogurt using bacteria lactobacilus which changes texture and flavour. 2. Medicinal use ie to make drugs like penicillin - fungus - penicillium. 3. In industry - to make useful enzymes -calcium citrate used in detergents.

Back

Give 3 uses of biotechnology and examples of fungus/bacteria involved

Card 3

Front

Asepsis is absence of unwanted micro-organisms because they: compete with culture organsims for space, reduce yield of useful products, cause spoilage and produce toxic chemicals.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1. All apparatus sterilised before/ after use by heating with flame until glowing or with UV light. 2. Carried out in fume cupboard as air circulation carries away airborne contaminants. 3.Cultures of microorganisms kept closed, away from surface.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1. Washing, disinfecting and steam cleaning the fermenter and pipes when not in use and removes excess nutrient medium and kills microorganisms. 2. Fermenter surfaces made of polished stainless steel prevent microbes from sticking to the surface.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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