Biology

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Cell Signalling
Processes that lead to the communication and coordination between cells e.g hormones binding to their receptors on the cell surface membrane
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Target Cell
Any cell with a receptor for the hormone molecule
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Alpha-Helix
A protein secondary structure- a right handed spiral held in place by hydrogen bonds between adjacent C=O and NH groups
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Activation Energy
The level of energy required to enable a reaction to take place. Enzymes reduce the amount of energy required to allow a reaction to proceed.
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Active Immunity
Immunity that is acquired by activation of immune system.
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Active Site
The area on an enzyme molecule to which the substrate binds.
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Active Transport
Movement of substances across membranes against their concentration gradient, requiring the use of energy in the form of ATP. Active transport usually involves the use of transport proteins.
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Adaptation
A feature of a living organism that increases its chance of survival.
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Adenine
A nitrogen-containing organic base found in nucleic acid. It pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA.
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Adhesion
Force of attraction between molecules of two different substances.
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Adipose
Describes tissue consisting of cells that store fat/lipid
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Affinity
An attractive force between substances or particles.
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Allele
A version of a gene.
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Allopatric
Seperation due to organisms of a species being separated by geographical barriers so that over time members of the two populations become so different that they cannot interbreed and are considered to be two different species.
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Alveoli
Small air sacs in the lungs
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Amino Acid
An organic compound that contains both an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). Amino acids are the monomers of protein molecules/
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Amylase
An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch to maltose.
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Anaphase
In mitosis, the stage where the newly separated chromatids are pulled towards opposite poles of the nuclear spindle.
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Antibiotics
Molecules produced by microorganisms that kill or limit the growth of other microorganisms.
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Antibodies
Protein molecules released by the immune system in response to an antigen, which are capable of neutralising the effects of the antigen.
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Antigen
A foreign molecule (which may be protein or glycoprotein) that can provoke an immune response. Organisms have antigens on their plasma membranes.
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Antigen-presenting cell
A macrophage that has ingested a pathogen and displays the pathogen's antigens on its cell surface membrane.
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Apoplast pathway
The route taken by water between the cells or through the cell walls in a plant.
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Arteriosclerosis
Hardening of the artery walls and loss of elasticity caused by atherosclerosis and deposition of calcium.
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Artificial immunity
Immunity acquired as a result of deliberate exposure to antigens or by the injection of antibodies.
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Artificial selection
(selective breeding) the process of improving a variety of crop plant or domesticated animal by breeding from selected individuals with desired characteristics.
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Asexual reproduction
The production of genetically identical new organisms by a single 'parent' organism.
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Assimilation
Incorporation. Usually applied to the process of incorporating simple molecules of food produced by digestion into the living cells of an animal for use in metabolism.
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Atherosclerosis/atheroma
The process of deposition of fatty substances in the lining of arteries to form atheroma, which may eventually lead to arteriosclerosis
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ATP
adenosine triphosphate- a molecule used to store energy temporarily in organisms. The molecule is broken down to adenosine diphosphate + phosphate to release energy to drive metabolic processes.
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Atrioventricular node (AVN)
A patch of tissue in the septum of the heart that conducts the electrical stimulus from the atria in the heart through to the Purkyne fibres.
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Atrioventricular valves
valves between the atria and ventricles that prevent backflow of blood.
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Atrium
One of the upper chambers of the heart
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Autotroph
An organims that makes its own food from simple inorganic molecules, such as CO2 and H20. Some (photoautotrophs) e.g. plants, use light as a source of energy. Some (chemotrophs) e.g. some bacteria, use chemical energy.
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Base-pairing rules
Complimentary base-pairing, between nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids. Adenine pairs with thymine (or uracil). Guanine pairs with cytosine.
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Binary fission
Method of cell division in bacteria. The DNA replicates and the cell divides in two, each having the same DNA as the parent cell. It does not involve mitosis.
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Biodiversity
The number and variety of living things to be found in the world, in an ecosystem or in a habitat
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Body mass index
Numerical value found by dividingan individual's mass in KG by the height (in M2) and used to assess if the individual is underweight, acceptable weight, overweight or obese.
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Bohr effect
The effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen.
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Bronchi
Airways in the lungs that lead from the trachea to the bronchioles
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Bronchioles
Airways in the lungs that lead from the bronchi to the alveoli
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Cambium
Plant tissue in the stem and root that contain dividing cells.
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Carbaminohaemoglobin
The molecule resulting from combination of carbon dioxide and haemoglobin
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Carbohydrate
A clas of biological molecules with the general formula Cx(H2O)x. It includes sugars, starches, glycogen and cellulose.
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Carcinogen
A substance that causes cancer
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Cardiac cycle
The sequence of events making up one heartbeat
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Cardiac muscle
The muscle found in the heart. It has its own intrinsic heartbeat (it is myogenic)
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Carrier protein
A protein found in membranes, which is capable of carrying a specific molecule or ion through the membrane by active transport
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Cartilage
A flexible, slightly elastic connective tissue.
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Cartilage ring
A flexible ring of cartilagethat holds the airways open.
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Casparian strip
A string of waterproof material (suberin) in the cell walls of root endodermis cells. It blocks the apoplast pathway.
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Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a reaction but does not take part in the reaction, and so is re-usable
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Cellulose
A carbohydrate polymer of beta glucose that forms plant cell walls
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Centromere
The region of a chromosone where two sister chromatids join together, and where the spindle fibre attaches during cell division.
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Channel protein
A protein pore that spans a membrane, through which very small ions and water soluble molecules may pass.
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Chemotaxis
The movement of cells or organisms towards or away from a particular chemical
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Chloride shift
The movement of chloride ions into red blood cells to balance the loss of hydrogencarbonate ions.
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Chlorophyll
Pigments found in chloroplasts of plants (and some protocists) cells. Each molecule consists of a hydrocarbon tail and and porphyrin ring head with a magnesium atom. Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light, trapping the energy, and reflects green ligh
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Chloroplast
An organelle found in plants, which contains chlorophyll and is responsible for phtotsynthetic activity in the plant.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Any cell with a receptor for the hormone molecule

Back

Target Cell

Card 3

Front

A protein secondary structure- a right handed spiral held in place by hydrogen bonds between adjacent C=O and NH groups

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The level of energy required to enable a reaction to take place. Enzymes reduce the amount of energy required to allow a reaction to proceed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Immunity that is acquired by activation of immune system.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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