Biochemistry

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  • Created by: Abby1907
  • Created on: 13-03-14 16:06
What is a monosaccharide?
A single sugar
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What is a disaccharide?
2 monosaccharides joined together
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Monosaccharides are joined by what reaction?
Condensation
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What type of sugar is glucose?
Hexose
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What sugar is formed from two glucose molecules?
Maltose
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What 3 elements make up a carbohydrate?
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen
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What is a main function of carbohydrates?
Providing energy from respiration
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State another function of carbohydrates
Act as cell markers on surface of cell membranes
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What are the three S's of glucose
Sweet, Small, Soluble
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In a condensation reaction what is removed?
A molecule of water
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What monomers is sucrose made from?
Glucose and fructose
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What monomers is lactose made from?
Glucose and galactose
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What type of bond is formed in the reaction of glucose+glucose?
Glycosidic
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Why is this glycosidic bond described as 1:4?
Carbon 1 and carbon 4 in the molecule are sharing oxygen and joining
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What is a polysaccharide?
Many monosaccharides joined together
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Give an example of a polysaccharide
Starch
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What is starch made up from?
Amylose and amylopectin
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What is the test for starch?
Iodine test
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How does the iodine test for starch work?
The dye gets stuck in the helix of amylose
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How does cellulose differ from starch?
It is made of beta-glucose
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What are some of the features of cellulose?
It is a straight, strong, flexible, light molecule
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What is both amylose and amylopectin made up from?
Long chains of alpha- glucose
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What is starch used for?
Main energy storage in plants
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Is starch coiled or straight?
Tightly coiled
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Why is starch tightly coiled
To make it compact
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Why make it compact?
So a lot can be stored in a small space
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What makes starch suitable for energy storage?
Insoluble, doesn't diffuse easily, compact, forms alpha- glucose when hydrolysed
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Why does starch need to be insoluble?
So it does not draw water into cells by osmosis
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What is the pro of forming alpha- glucose when starch is hydrolysed?
It is easily transported and readily used in respiration
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How does glycogen differ from starch?
Has shorter chains and is more highly branched
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Is this a major carbohydrate storage in plants or animals?
Animals
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How is glycogen stored?
As small granules
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Where is glycogen stored?
Mainly in muscle and liver cells
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What is the advantage to having shorter chains of alpha - glucose
It is more readily hydrolysed
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Where would you find cellulose in a plant?
Cell wall
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What makes it suitable for a cell wall?
Provides rigidity and prevents cell from bursting
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How does cellulose cell wall prevent cell from bursting?
Exerts an inward pressure, cells are turgid
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Why is it important cells are turgid in plants?
For maintaining stems and leaves to provide maximum surface area
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How does beta- glucose differ from alpha- glucose?
The OH and H are swapped on the right hand side
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Why do the chains of beta- glucose run parallel to each other in cellulose?
Allows hydrogen bonds to form cross- linkages
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Why does it form hydrogen bonds?
Strengthens it
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Reducing sugars include ALL monosaccharides and MOST disaccharides except what?
Sucrose
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Are polysaccharides reducing or non- reducing sugars?
Non- reducing
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How do you test for a reducing sugar?
Benedict's test
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What are the 2 marking points in a Benedict's test description?
1. Add Benedict's reagent 2. HEAT
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What colour indicates a positive result for a reducing sugar?
Brick red
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If it stays a blue colour what does this mean?
There is no reducing sugar
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What must you not assume?
That there is no non- reducing sugar present?
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After a negative result for a reducing sugar how do you test for a non- reducing sugar?
1.Add HCL and boil 2.Neutralise with sodium carbonate solution 3. Add Benedict's reagent and HEAT
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What colour indicates a positive result for a non- reducing sugar?
Brick red
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If it stays blue what does this mean?
There is neither a reducing nor non- reducing sugar present
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How does the Benedict's test work ?
Some sugars are reducing AGENTS and they give electrons to Cu2+ ions in the Benedict's solution forming Cu+ ions - these cause colour change to red
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The more red a Benedict's test is the.....?
More reducing sugar present
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How do you make a test for reducing sugars more accurate?
Use a colorimeter
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What does a colorimeter do?
Measures as a % light transmitted through the sample
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Why is it important to shake the test tube during Benedict's test?
The precipitate will settle over time
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What is the test for a lipid?
1. Dissolve liquid in ethanol 2. Pour into equal volume of water
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What indicates a positive result for a lipid?
A cloudy emulsion
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What are lipids?
Compounds that are insoluble in water
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What elements make up lipids?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
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How do lipids differ from carbohydrates in respect to the elements?
There is less oxygen in lipids than carbohydrates
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At room temperature the lipid is a solid, what is it?
Fat
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At room temperature the lipid is a liquid, what is it?
Oil
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What is fat digested into?
Fatty acids and glycerol
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What is a triglyceride ?
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
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What bond is formed between glycerol and the fatty acids?
Ester bond
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What type of reaction is making a triglyceride?
Condensation
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Does an unsaturated lipid have double bonds or single bonds between carbons?
Double
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What effect does this have on the structure of the molecule?
It has a ***** tail
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Why is an unsaturated lipid a liquid?
Molecules can't lie close together
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What type of bonds are there between carbons in a saturated lipid?
Single bonds
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Why are saturated lipids solid?
They form straight chains which lie close together
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What is the test for proteins?
Add Biuret solution
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What colour indicates a positive result for a protein?
Blue to PURPLE
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What 3 groups from the structure of an amino acid?
Amine, variable, carboxyl
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When 2 amino acids join together what sort of reaction is this?
Condensation
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What type of bond is formed between 2 amino acids?
Peptide bond
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What is the primary structure of a protein?
The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
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What is the secondary structure of a protein?
Folding into alpha- helix or beta- pleated sheet
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What enables the folding of these structures?
Hydrogen bonds between close NH groups and C=O groups
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What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
Further folding involving bonds between R groups
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What bonds form between R groups?
Hydrogen, ionic, disulphide bridges
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What does a quaternary structure mean?
There is more than one polypeptide bonded
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a disaccharide?

Back

2 monosaccharides joined together

Card 3

Front

Monosaccharides are joined by what reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What type of sugar is glucose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What sugar is formed from two glucose molecules?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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