Biology

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  • Created by: mgcd1998
  • Created on: 25-02-14 18:56
During exercise, the muscle cells respire more than they do at rest. This means:
Oxygen and glucose must be delivered to them more quickly...Waste carbon dioxide must be removed more quickly
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How is this achieved?
This is achieved by increasing the breathing rate and heart rate. The increase in heart rate can be detected by measuring the pulse rate. The stroke volume also increases – this is the volume of blood pumped each beat
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Blood pressure
Arteries carry blood away from the heart. The blood in the arteries is under pressure because of the contractions of the heart muscles. This allows the blood to reach all parts of the body.
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Systolic pressure
the higher measurement when the heart beats, pushing blood through the arteries.
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Diastolic pressure
the lower measurement when the heart rests between beats.
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Blood pressure varies with age. It also varies with:
Diet Stress Exercise Body mass Alcohol consumption
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FEATURE OF LEAVES: LARGE SURFACE AREA
Absorbs more light
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FEATURE OF LEAVES: THIN
Short distance for carbon dioxide to diffuse into leaf cells
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FEATURE OF LEAVES: CHLOROPHYLL
Absorbs sunlight to transfer energy into chemicals
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FEATURE OF LEAVES: NETWORK OF VEINS
To support the leaf and transport water and carbohydrates
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FEATURE OF LEAVES: STOMATA
Allow carbon dioxide to diffuse into the leaf
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Epidermis is thin and transparent
To allow more light to reach the palisade cells
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Thin cuticle made of wax
To protect the leaf without blocking out light
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Palisade cell layer at top of leaf
To absorb more light
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Spongy layer
Air spaces allow carbon dioxide to diffuse through the leaf, and increase the surface area
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Palisade cells contain many chloroplasts
To absorb all the available light
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FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESIS: LIGHT INTENSITY
Without enough light, a plant cannot photosynthesise very quickly, even if there is plenty of water and carbon dioxide. Increasing the light intensity will boost the speed of photosynthesis.
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FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESIS: TEMPERATURE
If it gets too cold, the rate of photosynthesis will decrease. Plants cannot photosynthesise if it gets too hot.
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FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESIS: CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION
Sometimes photosynthesis is limited by the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air. Even if there is plenty of light, a plant cannot photosynthesise if there is insufficient carbon dioxide.
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Sweep nets
Sweep nets are used in areas of long grass to catch organisms. They can also be used in ponds.
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Pooters
A pooter is used to catch small insects. The user breathes in through the mouthpiece which has a piece of net covering the end. The insects are sucked into the holding chamber via the inlet tube.
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Pitfall traps
Pitfall traps are used to catch small, crawling insects. They can be set up and left overnight to catch nocturnal species. All organisms caught should be released unharmed.
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Quadrats
Quadrats are square frames of a known size eg 1 m2. They are used to sample all the plant species in a particular area.
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Ecologists study an environment in terms of its biodiversity – the variety of different species in an area. They will want to know certain information about the species present:
Where an organism is found (distribution) The number of that organism present (population)
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pH probe
pH is measured with a pH probe Temperature is measured with a temperature probe Sometimes a single probe can be used to read both pH and temperature
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Light intensity meter
Light intensity can be measured using a light intensity meter.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How is this achieved?

Back

This is achieved by increasing the breathing rate and heart rate. The increase in heart rate can be detected by measuring the pulse rate. The stroke volume also increases – this is the volume of blood pumped each beat

Card 3

Front

Blood pressure

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Systolic pressure

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Diastolic pressure

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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