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What is the equation for pulmonary ventilation?
Pulmonary ventilation = Tidal Volume X Ventilation Rate
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What factors effect rate of diffusion through the alveoli?
Short diffusion pathway, large surface area, blood flow maintains concentration and thin membrane
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How is inspiration preformed?
External intercoastal contract and internal relax, diaphagram contacts, air pressure decreases in the lungs causing air into lungs
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How is expiration preformed?
Internal Intercoastal contract and external relax, diaphagram relaxes, volume in thorax decreases so air pressure increases, so air is forced out of lungs
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How does the heart contract?
SAN produces electrical activity that cause atria to contract, The AVN receives the electrical activity and after a short delay conveys it to the bundle of HIS, the electrical activity travels up perkinje fibres and causes heart to contract from apex
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What is the equation for cardiac output?
Cardiac output = Heart rate X Stroke volume
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What is the cause of emphysema?
Elastin is stretched so lungs cannot force air out, alveoli surface area reduced and they can burst so little gas exchange across alveoli
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How is pulmonary fibrosis caused?
Scars form on epithelium causing it to thicken so O2 cannot diffuse properly and lungs have reduced elasticity so ventilation is difficult.
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How is asthma caused?
Lining of airways are inflamed, epithelial cells secrete large quantities of mucus, fluid enters airways from capillaries so the airways are constricted.
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What is an atheroma?
White blood cells taking up LDL form a fatty deposit in artery wall, enlarges to form atheromatous plaque and this increases risk of thrombosis and aneurysm
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How can thrombosis lead to heart attack?
Atheroma breaks through endothelium, Forms a thrombus (blood clot), may block blood vessel like coronary artery, constriction of blood to heart muscle means it will die due to lack of O2 and glucose.
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What is aneurysm?
Atheroma weaken artery wall, swelling leads to an aneurysm, these can burst, leading to haemorrhaging and blood loss to coronary muscle.
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What is contained in Oral Rehydration Therapy?
Water, sodium (to use alternate sodium-glucose carrier protein), Glucose, potassium and electrolytes.
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How does cholera cause disease?
Cholera pass through mucus lining of small intestine, produce 2 part toxin that binds to carbohydrate receptor on cell, and other part opens ion channel causing chloride ions out, so water potential decreases in lumen and osmosis occurs.
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What is the food test for protein?
Buiret solution, add protein = purple colour
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What is food test for non-reducing sugar?
Dilute hydrochloric acid and boil, neutralise, check with litmus paper and then add Benedict's solution
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What is the test for reducing sugar?
Add Benedict's solution and heat up, precipitate should form
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What is the test for starch?
Add iodine = dark colour
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What is the food test for lipids?
Add ethanol to grinded up lipids, shake and pour into cold water, white emulsion should for,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What factors effect rate of diffusion through the alveoli?

Back

Short diffusion pathway, large surface area, blood flow maintains concentration and thin membrane

Card 3

Front

How is inspiration preformed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is expiration preformed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does the heart contract?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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