Biology 2B

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Give a definition of a catalyst.
A catalyst is a substance which increases the speed of a reaction without being changed or used up in the reaction.
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State three functions of proteins in living cells, other than acting as catalysts.
Building and repairing of body tissues, regulation of body processes and formation of enzymes and hormones.
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Why does an enzyme-catalysted rection stop when the reaction mixture is heated above a certain temperature.
The bonds holding the enzyme together break. This destroys the enzyme's special shape and so it won't work any more. It is said to be denatured.
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In which three places in the body is amylase produced?
The salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine.
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Where is a)protease and b)lipase produced?
a)The stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine b)The pancreas and small intestine.
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What does Bile do?
Bile neutralises the stomach acid and emulsifies fats.
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Where is bile a)produced b)stored c)used
a)It's produced in the liver b)It's stored in the gall bladder c)It's used in the small intestine.
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Explain why the stomach produces hydrochloric acid.
To kill bacteria and to give the right pH for the protease enzyme to work (pH 2- acidic)
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Write down the word equation for aerobic respiration.
glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water +ENERGY
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Give two examples of how an animal uses the energy released by aeorbic respiration.
To build up larger molecules from smaller ones (like proteins from amino acids), in animals to allow the muscles to contract (which allows them to move about), in mammals and birds the energy is used to keep their body temperature steady.
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Give the word equation for anaerobic respiration.
glucose energy +lactic acid
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What is anaerobic respiration?
When you are excersing and your body can't supply enough oxygen to your muscles, it starts doing anaerobic respiration, which is the incomplete breakdown of glucose.
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Explain how you repay an oxygen debt.
By keeping your pulse and breathing rate high to get more oxygen into your blood. Blood flows through your muscles to remove the lactic acid by oxidising it to harmless CO2 and water.
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Give two kinds of enzyme that would be useful in a biological washing powder.
The enzymes used are proteases and lipases because the enzymes break down animal and plant matter, they're ideal for removing stains like food or blood.
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How does DNA control the activities of a cell.
DNA controls cell functions by controlling protein synthesis. The proteins that are synthesized according to the DNA code function to control and regulate all aspects of the cell's activites.
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How is DNA fingerprinting is used in forensic science?
DNA taken from a crime scene is compared with a DNA sample from a suspect.
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What is mitosis used for in the body?
It makes new cells for growth and repair.
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How does mitosis work?
In a cell that's not dividing, the DNA is all spread out in long strings. The cell gets a signal to divide and they turn into chromosomes. The chromosomes then line up at the centre of the cell and cell fibres pull them apart. SEE PG 28 WRITE UP
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Name the other type of cell division and where does it happen in the body of a human male?
Meiosis and in the sperm cell or gamete.
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What is differentiation in a cell?
Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. It occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellur organism as the organism changes from a simple zygote to complex tissues.
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Explain meiosis.
SEE PAGE 29
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Give three ways that embryonic stem cells could be used to cure diseases.
Bone marrow contains stem cells that can turn into new blood cells to replace the faulty old ones. Make beating heart muscle cells for people with heart diseases, insulin producing cells for people with diabetes and nerve cells for people who are par
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Which chromosome in the human body causes male characteristics?
The Y chromosomes.
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What is an allele?
Two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome. They are different versions of the same gene.
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What is meant by an organism being heterozygous? And homozygous?
It's heterozygous if it has two alleles for a particular gene that are different and it's homozygous if it has two alleles the same for a particular gene.
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Describe the basic difference between a recessive allele and a dominant one.
For an organism to display a recessive characteristic, both alleles must be recessive. For a dominant characteristic to display, it only has to have at least one dominant allele.
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What is polydactyly?
When a baby is born with extra fingers or toes.
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Describe three ways fossils can form, give an example for each type.
From gradual replacement by minerals (most fossils happen this way), from casts and impressions (e.g clay) and from preservation in places where no decay happens.
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Give three reasons why some species become extinct.
The enviroment changes too quickly, a new predator kills them all, a new disease kills them all, they can't compete with another species for food, a catastrophic event happens that kills them all and a new species develops.
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What is speciation?
It is the development of a new species.
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Explain how geographical isolation can lead to speciation.
Two populations of the same species are sperated by physical barriers. The populations adapt to new enviroments and then there is a development of a new species.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

State three functions of proteins in living cells, other than acting as catalysts.

Back

Building and repairing of body tissues, regulation of body processes and formation of enzymes and hormones.

Card 3

Front

Why does an enzyme-catalysted rection stop when the reaction mixture is heated above a certain temperature.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In which three places in the body is amylase produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where is a)protease and b)lipase produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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