Biology 2B

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: AlexWasch
  • Created on: 23-04-14 18:15
Give a definition of a catalyst
is a substance which increases the speed of a reaction, without being changed or used up in the reaction
1 of 29
state three functions of proteins, other than acting as catalysts
proteins also act as strucural components of tissues, hormones and antibodies
2 of 29
Explain why an enzyme catalysed reaction stops when heated above a certain temperature
the bonds of the enzyme break and is said to be denatured
3 of 29
which three places in the body is amalase produced?
salivary glands, pancreas and the small intestine
4 of 29
Why does the stomach produce hydrochloric acid?
to kill bacteria and to give the right PH for the protease enzyme to work (PH 2 acidic)
5 of 29
where in the body is bile produced, stored and used?
produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder and used in the small intestine
6 of 29
whats the word equation for aerobic repsiration?
glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy
7 of 29
give two examples of how animals use energy released by aerobic respiration
to allow muscles to contract and to build larger molecules from smaller ones
8 of 29
what is anaerobic repiration and whats the word equation?
'without oxygen' the incomplete breakdown of glucose which produces lactic acid. glucose > energy + lactic acid
9 of 29
explain how you repay an oxygen debt
keep breathing hard for a while after you stop to get more oxygen into your blood which flows through your muscles and removes the lactic acid through oxidation
10 of 29
give two enzymes that would be useful in a biological washing powder
proteases and lipases
11 of 29
advantages of using enzymes in industry
advantages - they're specific to a certain reaction. use low temperatures and pressure to lower cost and save energy. after initial cost, they can be contunually be used and they are biodegradable, less envrironmental pollution.
12 of 29
disadvantages of using enzymes in industry
some can develop allergies. they can be denatured by small increase of temperature. susceptible to poisons and change in PH. must be tightly controlled. can be expensive. contamination can affect reaction.
13 of 29
explain how DNA controls activities of a cell
contains all the instructions to make an organism work. a gene codes for a specific protein which determines what type of cell it is
14 of 29
explain how DNA fingerprinting is used in forensic science
its a way of cutting up a person's DNA and seperating it. with a unique pattern, you can tell people apart by comparing smaples of of DNA
15 of 29
what is mitosis used for in the human body?
1. cell divides to duplicate DNA to form x shaped chrom. 2. chrom. line up and cell fibres pull them apart. two arms go to oppsoite ends of cell. 3. membranes from around each set to form nuclei 4. cytoplasm divides to from two identical sets.
16 of 29
name other type of cell division and where its happens
meiosis in the ovaries and testes
17 of 29
what is differentiation in a cell?
a cell changes to become specialised for its job
18 of 29
three ways embryonic stem cells could be used to cure diseases
blood disaeses can be treated by bone marrow transplants. extract stem cells from very early human embryos and grow them. used to replace faulty cells in sick people
19 of 29
which chromosome causes male characteristics?
XY
20 of 29
what three important conclusions did Mendel reach following his experiments with pea plants
1. chracteristics in plants are determined by hereditary units 2. hereditary units are passed on from both parents, one from each parent 3. hereditary units can be dominant or reccesive, dominant will always be expressed over recessive
21 of 29
suggest why Mendel's work wasnt realised until 1900, 16 years after his death
in mendel's time, nobody knew anything about genes or DNA
22 of 29
what is an allele?
allele's are different versions of the same gene
23 of 29
what is meant by an organism being heterozygous or homozygous?
if an organsim has two alleles for a particular gene the same, it is homozygous. If two alleles for a particular gene are different, its heterozygous
24 of 29
what's the basic difference between a recessive allele and a dominant one?
to display a recessive characteristic, both its alleles must be recessive but to display a dominant characteristic, the organism can be either dominant or recessive
25 of 29
what is polydactyly?
polydactyly is a genetic disorder where a baby's born with extra fingers or toes
26 of 29
describe three ways that fossils can be formed. each one with an example
1. from gradual replacement by minerals (teeth, shells, bones) 2. from casts and impressions (animal's burrow, plant's roots, footprints) 3. from preservation in places where decay happens (insects, mammals, humans)
27 of 29
give three reasons why some species become extict
1. environmet changes (destrcution of habitat) 2. a new predator kills them all (humans hunting them) 3. a new disease kills them all
28 of 29
what is speciation? and how geographical isolation can lead to speciation?
speciation is the development of a new species. 1. each population shows variation with a wide range of alleles 2. individuals best suited to the environment have better chance of survival and breed 3. beneficial characteristics passed on
29 of 29

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

state three functions of proteins, other than acting as catalysts

Back

proteins also act as strucural components of tissues, hormones and antibodies

Card 3

Front

Explain why an enzyme catalysed reaction stops when heated above a certain temperature

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

which three places in the body is amalase produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why does the stomach produce hydrochloric acid?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all enzymes and genetics resources »