Biology 2b

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  • Created by: laurajg
  • Created on: 18-04-14 17:10
Give a definition of a catalyst.
A catalyst is a substance which INCREASES the speed of a reaction, without being CHANGED or USED UP in the reaction.
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State three functions of proteins in living cells, other then acting as a catalyst.
Proteins act as structual components of tissues, hormones and antibodies.
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Explain why enzyme-catalysed reaction stops when the reaction mixture is heated above a certain temperature.
If it gets too hot, some of the bonds holding the enzyme together break. This destroys the enzymes shape and so it won't work any more. This is called becoming denatured.
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In which three places in the body is amylase produced?
The salivary glands. The pancreas. The small intestine.
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Where in the body is bile produced?
Liver.
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Where in the body is bile stored?
Gall bladder.
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Where in the body is bile used?
Small intestine.
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Explain why the stomach produces hydrochloric acid.
Produced for two reasons; To kill bacteria and to give the right pH for the protease enzyme to work.
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen ---> Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy.
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Give two examples of how animals use the energy released by aerobic respiration.
Allows muscles to contract, Hels to control their body temperature.
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What is aerobic respiration?
The respiration of oxygen.
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Explain how you repay oxygen debt.
Havie to carry on brerathing hard after exercise, to all your organs can regain oxygen levels.
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What are the two kinds of enzyme useful in biological washing powder?
Protease, Lipases
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What are some advantages to using enzymes in industry?
They're specific(only do one type of reaction), Low temperatures= low cost and saves energy, work for a long time, Biodegradable.
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What are some diadvantages of using enzymes in industry?
Some people would have allergies to them, Can be denatured easily, Sometimes expensive to produce, Contamination can effect their reactions.
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How does DNA control the activities of a cell?
The DNA contains all the instructions for the cell.
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How is DNA fingerprinting used in forensic science?
The DNA from a crime scene can be mached with that of a suspect.
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What is mitosis used for in the human body?
They are used to make identical cells with in the body.
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Explain the four steps of mitosis.
1. DNA divides 2. Line up and are pulled apart. 3. Membranes form around the chromosones to form the nucleus. 4. the cytoplasm divides.
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What is the other way of cell division (apart from mitosis) and explain where it happens?
Meiosis, used in gametes (sex cells) halves the amount of chromosomes, so there will be the right amount when the sperm and egg fuse.
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What is differentation in a cell?
The process that makes cells specilised.
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Give three ways that embryonic stem cells could be used to cure diseases.
They could make undifferenciated stem cells into, nerve cells, muscle cells, and even into whole organs which can all be used to replace diseased parts of te body.
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Which chromosones in the human body causes male characteristics?
Y chromosones cause male characteristics.
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What are three importatnt conclusions that Mendel reaced following his experiments with pea plants?
1. Chartacteristics in plants are determined by hereditary units. 2. Hereditary units are passed on from both parents. 3. Heritary can be dominant or recessive.
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Why wasn't Mendels work understood at the time?
No one knew what DNA and genes were so they didnt understand the idea of his work.
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What is an allele?
Alleles are different variations of the same gene.
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What is meant by an organism being heterozygous?
If an organism has two alleles for a particular gene are different.
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What is meant by an organism being homozygous?
If an organism has two alleles for a particular gene are the same.
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What is the basic difference between dominent and recessve alleles?
A dominent allele will overrule a recessive one.
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If both parents carry recessive alleles for cystic fibrosis what is the probability of their child being a carrier?
50%
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What is polydactyly?
A disorder where a baby is born with extra fingers or toes.
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Describe the three wayts that a fossil can form. And give an example for each one.
1. From gradual replacement by minerals, teeth, shells, bones. 2. From casts and impressions, animal burrow or plant roots. 3. From preservation in places where no decay happens, in amber, glaciers and peat bogs.
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What are three reasons why some species have become extinct?
1. Environment change 2. New predator 3. New disease 4. Cant compete for food. 5. Catastrophic event 6. New species develops.
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What is speciation?
The development of a new species.
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How can geographical isolation lead to speciation?
Differwent conditions make the species have differnt adaptations and when the two different ones breed they produce a mixture of both their adaptations which means that the offspring would be a different species.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

State three functions of proteins in living cells, other then acting as a catalyst.

Back

Proteins act as structual components of tissues, hormones and antibodies.

Card 3

Front

Explain why enzyme-catalysed reaction stops when the reaction mixture is heated above a certain temperature.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In which three places in the body is amylase produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where in the body is bile produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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