Biology 2 - Topic 2

This has everything in topic 2 for biology 2. 

HideShow resource information
What is respiration?
Respiration is the process of breaking down glucose to release energy, which goes on in every living organism.
1 of 114
Give 3 examples of what respiration helps in a living organism.
1. Builds up larger molecules, like proteins. 2. Contacts muscles 3. Maintains a steady body temperature.
2 of 114
What is aerobic respiration?
This is respiration using oxygen.
3 of 114
What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water (+ Energy)
4 of 114
What does the circulatory system do in respiration?
Carries oxygen, glucose and carbon dioxide around the body.
5 of 114
Where does glucose come from?
The breaking down of food in the digestive system.
6 of 114
Where does the oxygen comes from?
Breathing air in through the lungs
7 of 114
What are the smallest blood vessels called?
Capillaries.
8 of 114
Where are capillaries in the body?
Nearby to any cell.
9 of 114
Why are capillaries in the body?
To supply the cells with glucose and oxygen and take away the waste: carbon dioxide.
10 of 114
How do these substances move from the cell to the capillaries?
By diffusion.
11 of 114
What is diffusion?
The movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
12 of 114
What happens when cells respire?
They use up oxygen and glucose so there is a low concentration of these substances inside the cells. However, there is a high concentration of them in the blood. This makes CO2 have high concentration in the cell than the blood.
13 of 114
What happens to the carbon dioxide?
It diffuses into the blood where the concentration is low.
14 of 114
The bigger the difference in concentration...
...the quicker the rate of diffusion.
15 of 114
What does muscle need energy for?
They need energy from respiration so the muscles can contract.
16 of 114
What does this mean when you exercise for your muscles?
The contract more frequently than normal so you need more energy from respiration . This increases respiration.
17 of 114
Why does respiration increase when you exercise?
So you can get more oxygen into the cells.
18 of 114
Why doe your breathing rate increase when you are exercising?
So you can get more oxygen in the cells. This means the oxygenated blood needs to get round the body quick enough - quicker heart rate. Also, it removes carbon dioxide quicker too.
19 of 114
What happens to diffusion when you exercise?
You diffuse carbon dioxide and oxygen quicker in the lungs and muscle cells - bigger difference in concentration, quicker diffusion rate.
20 of 114
What happens when you do vigorous exercise?
Your body cannot supply oxygen quick enough so, you use anaerobic respiration.
21 of 114
Give the equation for cardiac output?
Heart rate X Stroke rate.
22 of 114
What is anaerobic respiration mean?
You respire with none or little oxygen.
23 of 114
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose = lactic acid (+ Energy)
24 of 114
What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration? 2 points.
1. That anaerobic respiration doesn't release as much energy and is useful for emergencies. 2. It produces lactic acid in the muscle which is painful and causes cramp.
25 of 114
What is an advantage of anaerobic respiration?
You can keep on using your muscles a little longer.
26 of 114
What happens after you use anaerobic respiration once exercised?
You have oxygen debt.
27 of 114
What is oxygen debt?
You have to get the oxygen you didn't manage to give to your muscles.
28 of 114
In oxygen debt, you have to give back oxygen that is require. What is the name of this?
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
29 of 114
What does this mean for after you've stopped exercise with your breathing and heart rate?
You keep on breathing hard for a little while longer as the oxygen can get to your blood. Your heart rate stays high to get your oxygen to your blood where it is used to convert the lactic acid to carbon dioxide and oxygen.
30 of 114
What experiment can you do to investigate the effect of exercise on breathing and heart rate? 2 points.
1.Measure breathing by counting your breathes and measure your heart rate by taking your pulse. 2. Do a series of exercises for a short period of time.
31 of 114
Give the findings.
The quicker your pulse rate was, the more intense your worked out. This means your body needs to get more oxygen to your muscles and take away your carbon dioxide.
32 of 114
What is photosynthesis?
The process that produces food in plants through glucose.
33 of 114
What type of plants does photosynthesis occur in?
All green plants.
34 of 114
Where does photosynthesis occur?
In the leaves.
35 of 114
Where does the photosynthesis occur in the leaves? What does it use?
It occurs in the chloroplasts, this contain chlorophyll that absorbs energy from the sunlight and is converted into carbon dioxide and water into glucse. Oxygen is produced as by-product.
36 of 114
Give the word equation for photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide + Water (+ Sunlight in the chlorophyll) = Glucose + Oxygen.
37 of 114
Give a characteristic of a leave and why they are like that.
Leaves are broad so they had a large surface area to expose light.
38 of 114
What do leaves have that are tiny holes?
Stomata.
39 of 114
What does the stomata do?
The little holes open and close to let gases in like: carbon dioxide and oxygen in and out.
40 of 114
What is transpiration?
Allowing water vapour out of the cell.
41 of 114
What is allowing water vapour out of the cell?
Transpiration.
42 of 114
Give 3 things that affects the rate of photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide concentration, light intensity and temperature.
43 of 114
What is a limiting factor?
Stopping photosynthesis from happening.
44 of 114
What does a limiting factor depend on?
The environment.
45 of 114
Give each of the things that affect the rate of photosynthesis as a limiting factor.
1. At night the light intensity is low. 2. In winter, the temperature is low. 3. If the day is bright and light enough, the concentration of carbon dioxide is high.
46 of 114
Give and explain the experiment for limiting factors of photosynthesis.
Using Canadian pondweed, you can use the amount of oxygen produced in a selected time. This shows how fast the rate of photosynthesis is occurring by counting the bubbles given off.
47 of 114
Describe the light intensity graph for the rate of photosynthesis.
The more light there is, the higher the rate of photosynthesis until, it gets to a certain point. Beyond this, nothing happens, the temp or CO2 levels are the limiting factors.
48 of 114
Describe what the graph looks like.
It rises at a steady pace and them it corners off.
49 of 114
How do you get a graph like that?
By measuring the light intensity of the beaker using a light meter.
50 of 114
Describe the carbon dioxide graph for the rate of photosynthesis.
The more carbon dioxide there is, the quicker the photosynthesis until, it gets to a certain point. As long as the light and CO2 is right, the temperature is the limiting factor.
51 of 114
How could you control the carbon dioxide levels?
By dissolving different amounts of sodium hydrogencarbonate because this gives off carbon dioxide in the water.
52 of 114
Describe what the graph looks like.
It rises up until it corners off.
53 of 114
Describe the graph for the temperature with the rate of photosynthesis.
Usually, the temperature is the limiting factor because it is too low. They enzymes work slower at a lower temperature. If the plant gets too hot, the enzymes denature - 45.
54 of 114
How can you control the temperature in an experiment?
Water bath
55 of 114
What is osmosis?
The movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane form a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration.
56 of 114
What is a partially permeable membrane?
Is that it only lets some molecules through but not other, such as: water molecules.
57 of 114
Which ways do water molecules pass through with osmosis?
Water molecules move round randomly so they pass through both ways.
58 of 114
What is a steady net flow?
There are more molecules on one side than there is the other so. The one with the fewer molecules, will have more molecules passing through.
59 of 114
What is an example of a steady net flow? And explain it.
A strong sugar solution. The sugar solution gets more and more dilute when as the water tries to even up the concentration either side of the membrane.
60 of 114
What is osmosis a special type of?
It is a special type of diffusion but, it is to do with water molecules passing through high concentrations to low concentrations.
61 of 114
What practical cam you do to show osmosis? Explain it.
By cutting up a potato like cylinders, and placing them in different sugar and water solutions. One with pure and one with sugar. Leave them for 30 mins and measure their lengths again.
62 of 114
Describe what has happened in the pure water one.
The pure water ones will have expanded because there is a lower water concentration in the potatoes compared to the water breaker. The water moves from the beaker to the potato.
63 of 114
Describe what has happened in the concentrated sugar solution one.
The concentrated sugar solution ones will have shrunk because there is a low water concentration in the beaker so they are trying to even out. The water has moved from the potatoes into the beaker.
64 of 114
What was in dependent variable?
The chip length.
65 of 114
What was the independent variable?
The concentration of the sugar solution.
66 of 114
How do root hairs take in water?
By osmosis.
67 of 114
Describe the root hairs taking in water.
The roots on the plants are long which stick of the plant and into the soil. Each root has millions of microscopic hairs. This gives the plant a big surface area for absorbing water from the soil. There is a higher concentration of water in the soil
68 of 114
Which way does the water move in?
The water concentration moves from the soil to the plant root hairs.
69 of 114
What do root hairs take in expect for water?
Minerals.
70 of 114
How do root hairs take in minerals?
By using active transport.
71 of 114
What isn't normal about the root hair with the soil of the mineral concentration.
The hairs absorb minerals from the soil. The concentration of minerals is low in the soil so, there is a higher concentration of minerals in the root.
72 of 114
Describe the process of minerals getting into the plant.
Active transport uses energy from respiration to help the plant pull minerals into the root hair against the concentration gradient.
73 of 114
Why are minerals so important?
Because they are essential for growth.
74 of 114
Give two different types of tube networks in plants.
Xylem and phloem
75 of 114
What is tube networks?
They move substances to and from individual cells quickly.
76 of 114
Describe the tube network xylem.
Xylem tubes transport molecules from the root to the rest of the plant.
77 of 114
Give an example where xylem might transport the molecules.
The leaves.
78 of 114
Describe the tube network phloem.
This transports sugars from the leaves to growing and storing tissues.
79 of 114
Where are the sugars made?
In the leaves.
80 of 114
What is transpiration?
The loss of water from the plant.
81 of 114
How is transpiration caused?
By evaporation and diffusion of water from inside the leaves.
82 of 114
What does transpiration cause?
The shortage of water in the leaf so more water is transported from the xylem vessels.
83 of 114
What is a transpiration stream?
When there is transpiration, more water has to be diffused from the soil and up the plant.
84 of 114
What is transpiration a side-effect of?
The leaves adapting for photosynthesis to occur.
85 of 114
Why do plants have a stomata?
So that gases can be exchanged easily because there is more water in the plant than in the air.
86 of 114
Where does the water escape from?
It escapes from the water to the air through the stomata.
87 of 114
What does transpiration provide for the plant?
The constant supply of photosynthesis.
88 of 114
What is a habitat?
It is the place where an organism lives.
89 of 114
Give an example of a habitat.
The playing ground.
90 of 114
Give the distribution of the organisms' habitat.
It is where the organism is found.
91 of 114
Give an example of the distribution of the organisms' habitat.
In a part of the playing ground.
92 of 114
How do you study the distribution of organisms?
By measuring how common an organism is in two different places and compare them.
93 of 114
Give 5 ways in which you can measure how common an organism is.
1. Pooters 2. Pitfall traps 3. Sweep nets. 4. Pound nets. 5. Quadrats.
94 of 114
What are pooters for?
Collecting ground insects.
95 of 114
What are pooters?
They are jars that have rubber bans at the top and two tubes stuck through the bung.
96 of 114
How do you use a pooter?
By sucking up the shorter tube, and the longer one has an insect on the end; it will stick to the tube.
97 of 114
Describe how you would use a pooter in an experiment.
By crawling on your sample spaces for a while and **** on the small tube, insects will stick to the tube. Count the number of insects you have collected. Do this for the other sample space and compare.
98 of 114
What are pitfall traps used for?
Collecting ground insects.
99 of 114
What are pitfall traps?
These are steep-sided containers that are sunk in a hole in the ground. The stop is slightly open so the insects can get in.
100 of 114
How do you use a pitfall trap?
By leaving them overnight in your first sample size, the insects will fall in the container. Count them and do it for the same in your second sample space and compare.
101 of 114
What are sweep nets used for?
Collecting animals in long grass.
102 of 114
What are sweep nets?
They are lined nets with strong cloth to collect animals.
103 of 114
How would you use sweep nets in an experiment?
By standing still in your sample space and sweep the net once from left to right through the grass. Quickly, sweep up the net and put the insects in a container. Repeat this in your second sample area and compare.
104 of 114
What are pond nets for?
They are used for collecting animals from ponds.
105 of 114
What are pond nets?
They are a net for collecting insects in the ponds or rivers.
106 of 114
How would you use pond nets in an experiment?
In your first sample space, sweep along the bottom of the pond or river and put it in a container and count the insects. Do this in the your second sample space and compare the results.
107 of 114
What are Quatrats for?
Studying the distribution of small organisms.
108 of 114
What is a quatrat?
This is a square from closing sample areas to compare how common an organism is in two sample spaces.
109 of 114
How do you use a quatrat in an experiment?
Placing the quatrat in 1m squared places. Divide the grid and use a random number generator to pick coordinates. Count all the organisms you have collected, do it more than once in that area and mean it.Then do it for your second sample and compare.
110 of 114
How do you work out the population size?
1. Find the mean of the number of organisms per meters squared. 2. Multiply the mean by the total number of organisms.
111 of 114
How do you find the distribution of organisms changes across an area?
Mark out line in area you want to study, put a quatrat at the start line and count the organisms. Take samples by moving along the line.
112 of 114
What factors might be causing the distribution of organisms?
The environmental factors.
113 of 114
Give 3 things on how to measure the environmental factors of distribution.
1. Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of different places. 2. Use a light sensor to measure the light intensity. 3. Measure the soil of the p
114 of 114

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give 3 examples of what respiration helps in a living organism.

Back

1. Builds up larger molecules, like proteins. 2. Contacts muscles 3. Maintains a steady body temperature.

Card 3

Front

What is aerobic respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the circulatory system do in respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Topic 2. resources »