Biology 2 - Food and Digestion

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  • Created by: Ls
  • Created on: 09-05-14 07:52
carbohydrates
simple sugars; carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
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protein
amino acids; carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen
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lipids
fatty acids and glycerol; hydrogen, oxygen and carbon
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test for starch
iodine solution: browny/orange --> blue/black
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test for glucose
Benedict's solution (heat it): blue > green > yellow > orange > brick red ppt
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test for protein
copper sulphate and sodium hydroxide: lilac
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test for fat
ethanol and water (shake): milky white emulsion
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carbohydrates: function and examples
energy; can cause tooth decay; pasta or rice
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lipids: function and examples
energy, energy store, insulation; can cause heart disease (cholesterol), obesity; butter or oily fish
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proteins: function and examples
growth and repair of tissues; kwashiorkor disease; meat or fish
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vitamin A: function and example
better vision, healthy skin and hair; night blindness; liver
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vitamin C: function and example
sticks cells lining surfaces; scurvy; oranges
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vitamin D: function and example
calcium absorption; rickets, poor teeth; eggs
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calcium (mineral): function and examples
making bones and teeth; rickets; milk or cheese
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iron (mineral): function and example
haemoglobin healthy blood; anaemia; red meat
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energy requirements vary with
age, activity level and pregnancy
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equation to find energy per gram of food
mass of water (g) x temperature change of water (°C) x 4.2 / mass of food
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enzymes (5)
active site; biological catalysts; metabolic reactions only; specific substrate fits into active site - enzyme substrate complex; substrate split to smaller molecules and changes shape.
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metabolic reaction
useful chemical reaction
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biological catalyst
Substance which increases the speed of a reaction without being changed or used up in the reaction.
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enzymes and temperature (3)
more kinetic energy and higher collision rate; if too high enzyme is denatured - irreversible; optimum temperature when enzyme is most active
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enzymes and pH (3)
affects interaction of amino acids and alters shape of active site; if too high enzyme is denatured; substrate fits best at optimum pH
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starch breakdown
starch --amylase--> maltose --maltase--> glucose
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protein breakdown
protein --trypsin/pepsin--> peptide --peptidase--> amino acids
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lipid breakdown
lipid --lipase--> glycerol and fatty acids
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bile (3)
neutralises stomach HCl; makes conditions alkaline, how enzymes work best; emulsifies fats into tiny droplets with bigger surface area for faster digestion
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mouth (3)
mechanical digestion by teeth; saliva lubricates food;amylase enzymes act
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salivary glands
source of amylase enzymes
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oesophagus
muscular tube, food from mouth to stomach
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stomach (2)
secretes HCl to kill bacteria and give right pH for pepsin enzymes to act (acidic); source of pepsin enzymes and where they act
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liver
where bile is produced
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gall blader (2)
stores bile; bile duct transports bile to small intestine
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pancreas
source of amylase, trypsin and lipase enzymes to release into small intestine
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small intestine (4)
ileum and duodenum; nutrients are absorbed; source of amylase and peptides enzymes; all enzymes act (but pepsin)
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large intestine (3)
colon and rectum; excess water is absorbed; faeces strored in rectum
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****
faeces are released
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sphincter muscles
holds back semi-digested food in stomach, when relaxed, releases into duodenum
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ileum (5)
big surface area; millions projections villi and microvilli; thin lining for short diffusion distance; good blood supply to maintain diffusion gradient (capillary network); products of fat digestion into lacteal, which transports lymph
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peristalsis (2)
waves of muscle contractions pushing food along the gut; circular contract and longitudinal relax
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ingestion
taking food into body through mouth
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digestion
break-down of large, insoluble molecules into small, soluble molecules
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absorption
uptake products of digestion through wall of intestines into blood stream
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assimilation
molecules absorbed from blood into body cells to make new parts of cells
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egestion
faeces are passed through gut without entering cells and gotten rid of
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

amino acids; carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen

Back

protein

Card 3

Front

fatty acids and glycerol; hydrogen, oxygen and carbon

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

iodine solution: browny/orange --> blue/black

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Benedict's solution (heat it): blue > green > yellow > orange > brick red ppt

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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