Biology

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Where does photosynthesis occur?
Photosynthesis occurs on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
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What are proteins coded for by?
Proteins are coded for by DNA.
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What does the base sequence code for?
The base sequence codes for the order of amino acids.
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What is each amino acid coded for by?
Each amino acid is coded for by three bases.
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What are chromosomes?
Chromosomes are long, coiled molecules of DNA, divided up into regions called genes.
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What do enzymes work by?
Enzymes work by a 'lock and key' mechanism.
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What is enzyme activity affected by?
Enzyme activity is affected by pH and temperature.
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What happens to enzymes at a low temperature?
Lower collision rates at lower temperatures.
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What can mutations lead to?
Mutations may lead to the production of different proteins.
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What are proteins made of?
Proteins are made of long chains of amino acids.
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What 4 things can proteins be?
Proteins can be structural, hormones, carrier molecules or enzymes.
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Describe transcription in protein-synthesis.
Inside the nucleus you have a double helix, the RNA will then come and make a single copy of the helix. After making the copy, the MRNA will come along and change the T's to U's so it can fit through the paws of the nucleus and enter the cytoplasm.
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Describe translation in protein-synthesis.
After taking the single strand of DNA into the cytoplasm, the MRNA will carry it across to the ribosome. The TRNA will come and form the codes from the DNA. It then fetches the amino acids and attaches it to the codes.
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What happens in meiosis?
In meiosis, the chromosome number is halved and each cell is genetically different.
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What are gametes produced by?
Gametes are produced by meiosis.
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What are new cells for growth produced by?
New cells for growth are produced by mitosis.
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What are the new cells made by mitosis?
The new cells made by mitosis are genetically identical.
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What does being multicellular allow organisms to do?
Being multicellular allows organisms to: Be larger, use cell differentiation and be more complex.
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What are stem cells also called?
Stem cells are also called undifferentiated cells.
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What can stem cells develop into?
Stem cells can develop into different cells, tissues and organs.
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What can growth be measured by?
Growth can be measured by wet mass, dry mass or length.
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Which form of measurment is the best? (wet mass, dry mass or length)
Dry mass is the best measure.
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What is the symbol equation for aerobic respiration?
C H O + 6O - 6CO + 6H O
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When does anaerobic respiration take place?
Anaerobic respiration takes place during hard exercise when there is insufficient oxygen available.
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What does anaerobic respiration produce?
Anaerobic respiration produces lactic acid.
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What does lactic acid do?
Lactic acid: Builds up in muscles causing pain and fatigue, acts as an oxygen debt and has to be broken down in the liver after exercise.
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Describe arteries.
Arteries have thick elastic walls and carry blood away from the heart.
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Describe veins.
Veins have large lumens and valves, and carry blood back to the heart.
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Describe capillaries.
Capillaries are permeable and link arteries to veins.
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Describe the heart.
The heart has four chambers and is part of a double circulatory system.
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Name all the parts of the heart.
Left and right atrium, left and right ventricle, bicuspid and tricuspid valves, semi - lunar valves, aorta, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery and vena cava.
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What do red blood cells do?
Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body and are especially adapted for this function.
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What does gene therapy involve?
Gene therapy involves changing a person's genes to try and cure disorders.
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What is nucleus transfer?
Nucleus transfer is when you take the nucleus of a body cell and place it into an egg cell.
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What will new cloning technology do?
New cloning technology will: Produce a number of benefits, involve certain risks and raise ethical issues.
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What can plants be cloned by?
Plants can be cloned by tissue culture.
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Why is cloning plants easier than cloning animals?
Cloning plants is easier than cloning animals because many plant cells retain the ability to differentiate.
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What can genetic engineering be used to produce?
Genetic engineering can be used to produce useful products but raises some ethical issues.
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Name 2 things about mutations.
Mutations: Are often harmful but may have no effect and can be beneficial.
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What can cause mutations to occur more often?
Chemicals and radiation can cause mutations to occur more often.
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What does a substrate molecule do?
A substrate molecule fits into the active site of the enzyme.
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What do enzymes work best at and What is this called?
Enzymes all work best at a particular temperature and pH. This is called optimum.
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What do enzymes catalyse?
Enzymes catalyse chemical reactions occurring in respiration, photosynthesis and protein - synthesis of cells.
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What do enzymes do?
Enzymes speed up reactions in the body.
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What are enzymes also called?
Enzymes are also called biological catalysts.
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose - lactic acid (+ energy)
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What does respiration release and where is it trapped?
Respiration releases energy from food. This energy is trapped in a molecule called ATP.
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What does aerobic respiration involve?
Aerobic respiration involves the use of oxygen.
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Card 3

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What does the base sequence code for?

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Card 4

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What is each amino acid coded for by?

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Card 5

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What are chromosomes?

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