Biology 1 Revision Part 1

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What is Cloning?
The exact copy of an organism
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Name two ways of cloning plants
1.Cuttings 2.Tissue Culture
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How can plants be cloned through cuttings?
Gardeners take cuttings from parent plants, with a bud, and are kept in moist conditions until they are ready to plant
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What is Tissue Culture?
It is where tissue is removed from the tip of the plant, the tissue is then placed on a medium containing growth hormones and then 100's of clones are made
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How do you clone animals through Embryo Transplant?
Sperm cells are taken from a bull, and egg cells are taken from a cow and the sperm are used to artificially fertilise an egg. The embryo develops and splits, and is implanted into ofther cows, where they grow into calves.
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What is adult cell cloning?
It is when an unfertilised egg cell is removed of its nucleus, and an adult body cell is inserted into the empty egg cell. It is stimulated by an electric shock, making it divide, and is then implanted into the mother.
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What is Genetic engineering?
It is to copy a useful gene from one organism's chromosome into the cells of another.
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How does Genetic engineering work?
A human insulin gene is cut out of human DNA using enzymes. The same enzymes are then used to cut bacterial DNA, and different enzymes are used to insert the human insulin gene. The bacteria then multiply, and insulin is purified.
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Name some benefits of Genetic engineering/GM Crops
1. It can increase the yield of a crop, making more food 2.Crops can be made to contain nutrients that some people lack in LEDC's.
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Name three issues of Genetic engineering/GM Crops
1. It will kill insects and affect the number of weeds, reducing farmland biodiversity 2. Some people may develop allergies to the food 3.Transplanted genes may get out into the natural environment.
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What is a Synapse?
The connection between two neurones. The nerve signa. lt's transferred by chemicals which diffuse across the gap. The chemicals send off a new electrical signal in the next neurone.
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What is Oestrogen, FSH and what are their jobs in the Menstrual Cycle?
Oestrogen- It is produced in the ovaries, and causes the pituitary gland to produce LH, and inhibits release of FSH. FSH-It causes an egg to mature and stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen.
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What does LH do in the Menstrual Cycle?
LH- It's produced in the pituitary gland, and stimulates the release of an egg at the middle of the Menstraul Cycle
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What are the names of each part of the Nervous System?
Receptor - Sensory Neurone- CNS(relay neurone)- Motor Neurone- Effector
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What are reflexes?
They are fast automatic responses, which bypass your brain, when a quick response is essential. **It may reduce your chance of being injured**
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Card 2


Name two ways of cloning plants


1.Cuttings 2.Tissue Culture

Card 3


How can plants be cloned through cuttings?


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Card 4


What is Tissue Culture?


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Card 5


How do you clone animals through Embryo Transplant?


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