Biology 1- OCR 21st century science

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Gene
A section of DNA that codes for a particular characteristc.
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Nucleus
Part of the cell that contains the genetic information.
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Chromosome
Thread-like structure in the cell nucleus, that carries genetic information.
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DNA
Large molecule found in the nucleus of all baby cells, the sequence of which determines the genetic characteristic.
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Structual protein
Gives an organism rigidity and strength.
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Functional protein
Enable or speed up chemical reactions.
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Allele
Different version of a gene
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Hetrozygous
If the alleles for a characteristic in a pair are different, the organism is heterozygous.
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Homozygous
If the alleles for a characteristic in a pair are the same, the organism is said to be homozygous
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Dominant
Expressed alleles. One copy of the allele is needed in order for it to be expressed. Represented with an upper case letter.
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Recessive
Only expressed if two copies are present. Represented with a lower case letter.
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Genotype
Combination of alleles that an organism has
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Phenotype
Observable physical characteristics of an organism
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Gametes
Male and female sex cells ( sperm cell and egg cell)
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Genome
The whole genetic code of an individual.
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Cystic fibrosis
Genetic disease caused by a recessive allele.
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False positive
Individual does not have the disorder but the test sad that they do.
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False negative
Individual has the disorder but the test said that they don't.
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Clones
Genetically indentical individuals made by a-sexual reproduction
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Asexual reproduction
Reproducing without sexual intercouorse. It only involves one parent
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Embryonic stem cells
Unspecialised cells found in early embryos.
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Adult stem cells
Unspecialised cells, that can take on any roll of another cell in the body
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Inherited
A feature that is passed on from parents to offspring
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Proteins
Chemicals in living things that are polymers made by joining together amino acids.
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Enzymes
Help with digestion in animals like lipase which digests fats and amylase which digests starch.
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Zygote
Fertilised egg cell.
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Mutation
Changes in an organisms DNA that potentially affect the correct functioning of genes.
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Sexual Reproduction
Production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types
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Punnet square
square used in genetics to calculate the frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes
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Family tree diagram
A genetic diagram showing a family's ancestry
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Sex determining genes
The process of which the gender of an organism is 'fixxed'.
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Genetic testing
Study of a persons DNA in order to identify the genetic differences or susceptibility to particular diseases or abnormalities.
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Carrier of a disease
An organism possessing a recessive gene for trait but not expressing the trait
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Embryo
An unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of development.
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Foetus
An unborn human more than 8 weeks after conception.
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PGD
Genetic profiling of embryos prior implantation.
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Genetic screening
Analysing a group of people to determine genetic susceptibility to a particular disease.
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Differentiation
A less specialised cell becomes a more specialised cell type
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Part of the cell that contains the genetic information.

Back

Nucleus

Card 3

Front

Thread-like structure in the cell nucleus, that carries genetic information.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Large molecule found in the nucleus of all baby cells, the sequence of which determines the genetic characteristic.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Gives an organism rigidity and strength.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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