Biology 1 key term flashcards

Metabolic Rate
Rate of chemical reactions in cells
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Malnourished
An unbalanced diet causing deficiency of 1 or more nutrient
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LDL
Low Density Lipoprotein with HIGH cholestrol content (bad)
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HDL
High Density Lipoprotein with LOW cholestrol content (good)
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Pathogen
Disease causing microorganism
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Body's defence systems
Mucus, stomach acid, skin, blood clots, eyelashes/brows, earwax, tears, WBC. Conditions which inhibit pathogen growth, kill or stop pathogens entering body to begin with
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Semmelweiss's contribution to medicine
Realised infection was transferred from person to person in a contained area (e.g. hospitals). By washing hands with carbolic acid soap infection of mothers decreased significantly
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Virus
Smallest pathogen which reproduce inside body cells, causing damage and bursting. Anti-virus drugs severely damage the organism's cells
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Antibody
Recognises and attaches to antigen (protein) on pathogen's surface. Antibodies work against 1 pathogen only (e.g. Salmonella)
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Antitoxin
Produced by WBC to counteract toxins produced by pathogen
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Antigen
Protein shape of surface of pathogen recognised by antibodies, if pathogen is known antibodies can be released faster
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Phagocytes
WBC which ENGLUFS and destroys pathogen
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Cholestrol
Insoluble fat produced by liver carried in blood in form of lipoprotein
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Immune System
Body system recognises and destroys foreign cells (e.g. pathogens)
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Antibiotic
Cure bacterial diseases by killing bacteria (either actively or by preventing reproduction)
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Painkiller
Reduces symptoms of the diease but DON'T kill the pathogens
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Culture
Bacteria deliberately grown in controlled conditions for research or experiments
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Epidemic
Disease spread across A COUNTRY effecting a large proportion of the population
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Pandemic
Disease spread across MULTIPLE COUNTRIES or the world effecting a large proportion of the population
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Strain
Sub-group of a pathogen with slightly different features (e.g. antibiotic resistance)
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Super Bug
Resistant strain of bacteria
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Mutation
A RANDOM CHANGE in gene giving that individual organism a unique trait
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Resistance
Becoming IMMUNE to an antibiotic (a pathogen) or to a given pathogen (a human)
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Natural Selection
Natural process whereby the organisms best adapted to their environment will survive and breed
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Vaccination
Dead or inactive form of pathogen injected into body, stimulating antibody production, antibodies remain in body so if infected by THAT pathogen again body can destroy it faster and you don't get ill
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Vaccination advantages
Protects individual from that particular pathogen, avoids unpleasant or life threatening effects of being infected, If enough are vaccinated society as a whole is protected - even those who were not vaccinated - as the pathogen is unable to spread
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Vaccination Disadvantages
May cause side effects in some people, majority of population must be vaccinated to fully suppress pathogen and be effective, ethical questions about vaccination of children, cost (to individual or NHS in taxes)
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MMR
Vaccine for Measles, Mumps and Rubella diseases
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Nervous System
System of monitoring the environment so animals can respond to changes in their surroundings appropriately
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CNS (Central Nervous System)
The brain and spinal cord
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Receptor
Detector of external stimuli (e.g. light, heat) found in sense organs (e.g. skin, nose)
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Neurons
Nerve cells which carry electrical impulses
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Sensory Neuron
Carry electrical impulse from receptor to the CNS (relay neuron)
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Relay Neuron
Carry electrical impulse between sensory and motor neurons
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Motor Neuron
Carry electrical impulse from relay (CNS) to effector
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Synapse
Junction / gap between neurons. Electrical impulse becomes chemical to cross synapse.
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Effector
Muscle or gland that actively respond to stimulus (by contracting or secreting hormone)
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Response
Action taken by effector to cause body to react to stimulus
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Reflex Action
Rapid automatic responce to stimulus where relay neuron skips out brain
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Reflex Arc
Nerve sequence from receptor to effector in reflex action
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FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
Causes egg to mature & starts oestrogen production. Produced by pituitary gland in brain.
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Oestrogen
Inhibits FSH production, stimulates LH production and stimulates womb lining development. Produced by ovaries.
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LH (Luteinising Hormone)
Stimulates release of a matured egg from the ovary. Produced by pituitary gland in brain.
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Auxin
Plant hormone which gathers on one side of root / shoot causing unequal growth resulting in bending
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Phototropism
Responding to light (shoots growing towards light). Shots grow more on side with most auxin
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Gravitropism
Responding to gravity (roots growing towards gravity). Roots grow less on side with more auxin
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Use of plant hormone (to remove unwanted plants)
Weedkillers contain hormones which cause excessive growth, killing the plant.
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Uses of plant hormone (to help wanted plants grow)
Rooting hormone on plant cuttings to encourage root growth before cutting planted. This is a form of asexual reproduction, the cuttings are clones. Or to encourage fruit to ripen
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Placebo
Substance used in clinical trials which does not contain any drug
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Double-blind trial
Both scientists running experiment and patients do not know who has been given the real drug and who had the placebo
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Statins
Drugs which lower about of LDL cholesterol in the blood
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Drug
Chemicals which cause a change in the body (e.g. caffeine)
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Recreational Drug
Chemicals taken to cause a change in the body (e.g. excitability) deliberately for pleasure and non-medical reasons
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Steroids
Performance enhancing drugs which improve muscle mass or stamina of athlete
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Adaptation
Feature / characteristic that contributes to making the species suited to its environment so that it has a better change of survival
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Extremophile
Organism adapted to live in hostile conditions where enzymes would usually denature and stop working
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Denature
Changing the active site of an enzyme so that it can no longer speed up a reaction as the substrate would not fit the sites new shape
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Competition
Plants and animals fighting for limited resources such as food
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Territory
Area where an animal lives and feeds which it defends from other animals which may alter distribution of organisms
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Requirements for Animals to survive
Water, food, mates, space, breeding sites
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Requirements for Plants to survive
Light, space, water, access to carbon dioxide, nutrients found in the soil such as nitrates
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Adaptations plants may have to collect and store water
Swollen stem, small / curled in / waxy leaves, fewer stomata, extensive or shallow / deep root systems
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Ways of spreading seeds to avoid competition
Seeds survive in animals so taken away from mother plant (faeces), carried by wind, mini explosions to spread seeds further
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Non-living Factors
Environmental conditions (e.g. oxygen + light levels, climate, rainfall and temperature levels) which may alter distribution of organisms
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Living Factors
Organism changes (e.g. new predators, disease, plants) may alter food supply, habitat, food chain etc
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Indicator Species
Species which are sensitive to pollution levels so can be used to show changes of environmental pollution in an area
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Equipment to monitor non-living (environmental) changes
Rain gauge, pH / oxygen sensor, thermometers, data loggers
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Biomass
The mass of living material in plants and animals
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Pyramid of Biomass
Represents biomass at each stage of food chain once water is removed, shows energy is lost at every stage
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Energy entering any food chain
Is light energy from the sun captured by plants and algae
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"Energy wastage" in food chains
The energy that the organism takes in that does not result in growth of that organism
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How is energy lost at each stage of a food chain?
Reproduction (most gametes wasted), respiration (heat loss), movement, excretion, digestible parts like bones, fur, teeth, cellulose
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What conditions lead to increased decomposition?
Warm, moist areas
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Detritus Feeders
(e.g. worms) start decay process by eating dead organisms and producing waste
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Decay Organisms
Bacteria and Fungi (a.k.a. decomposers) break down detritus feeder's waste or dead organisms
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Stable Community
Recycles all of the nutrients it takes up
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Organic Waste
Waste which can be broken down by microorganisms into its base compounds (e.g. CO2)
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Aspects of an efficient composting system
Allow air (oxygen) in so microbes can respire, heat produced by respiration out (such as having gaps in a compost bin)
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Chromosomes
Inside nucleus, carry DNA which carries genes
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Genes
Inside chromosomes in the nucleus, are parts of DNA. Control a characteristic of the offspring
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DNA
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid, parts of DNA are called genes
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Gametes
Sex cells. Contain only 1 set of chromosomes and 1 set of genes, fuses with other gamete to form 2 sets. 2 Alleles in offspring, 1 from either parent.
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Allele
A different version of the same gene. E.g. eye colour
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Asexual reproduction
No gametes fusing. All genetic information from 1 parent. Offspring genetically identical (clones) of parent. No variety unless there is a random mutation
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Sexual reproduction
Fusion of gametes. 2 sets of genes leads to variation, offspring cannot be genetically identical to either parent as genetic information is mixed, offspring show a range of variation
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Advantages of Asexual reproduction
Fast, conserves energy wasted in sexual reproduction
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Advantages of Sexual reproduction
Variety means if conditions change survival of species more likely (higher chance some are adapted for that change), Natural selection means those that can survive pass on well adapted genes (species will be very well adapted the environment)
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Disadvantages of Asexual reproduction
Fast reproduction means negative mutations are likely to be passed on. No mutation (other than rare mutations) means little variety, species less likely to survive if environment changes
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Disadvantages of Sexual reproduction
Slow, wastes energy, requires 2 parents
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Genetic causes
Differences in genes, strongly effected by environmental causes.
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Forms of environmental impacts on an individual
Food (type and amount), accessible resources (education, books), upbringing, lack of light/space (in a plant)
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Cloning plants (tissue culture method)
Takes small groups of cells from plant and grows under special conditions. More expensive than taking cuttings, used to produce large numbers of rare / top quality plants
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Cloning animals (embryo transplants)
Form of asexual reproduction. Embryo of unspecialised cells split into small groups of cells. Each group transplanted into a host animal to develop. E.g. baby by surrogate
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Cloning animals (adult cell cloning)
Removes nucleus from mature ovum. Nucleus of an adult skin cell is removed and inserted. Mild electric shock to start cells dividing. Becomes ball of cells. Inserted into womb of a host. Clone is identical to the animal whose nucleus was used.
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Advantages of adult cell cloning
Clones can be genetically engineered to have useful characteristics. Have uses in medicine (e.g. bacteria given gene to produce human insulin). Can save endangered animals from extinction
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Disadvantages of adult cell cloning
Ethical disagreements. Limits variation by controlling gene pool, problem for natural selection if environment changes. Overuse to give 'ideal' animals may eliminate genes completely, may have future uses (e.g. in medicine). Cloning humans concerns
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Genetic Engineering
Changing the genetic make up of an organism by altering or replacing some of the genes. Done at early stage of development (when a single cell)
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How is a desired gene removed from an organism to be used in genetic modification?
An enzyme is used to remove the gene from its chromosome
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When did life on Earth begin?
Around 3 Million years ago
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Lamarck's Evolution Theory
"Inheritance of acquired characteristics". Stated characteristics developed during organism's lifetime would be passed onto next generation. Cannot be correct, e.g. missing limbs, dyed hair, scars are not part of genetic makeup, cannot be passed on
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Darwin's Evolution Theory
"Natural Selection", he recorded Galapagos finches. Stated all organisms vary, some are better adapted to survive. Better adapted survive and pass on genes. Gradually small changes take place. Useful mutations means survival so will be passed on
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Why was Darwin's theory of natural selection not accepted by other scientists for a long time?
Challenged idea that god made all organisms, insufficient evidence to prove theory, Darwin couldn't explain why organisms varied as genes were not known then, he didn't know why useful adaptations were inherited
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Classification
Grouping organisms, shows how closely species are related and if they have common ancestors
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Kingdoms
Plant, Animal and Microorganism kingdoms. Largest group in natural classification system
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Species
Smallest group in natural classifcation system. Organisms of the same species very similar, able to breed together to produce fertile offspring
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Evolutionary trees
Show evolutionary relationship between different species and any common ancestors. Usually gives timescale showing when speciation / mutations took place. Show how different species have evolved together in an environment
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

An unbalanced diet causing deficiency of 1 or more nutrient

Back

Malnourished

Card 3

Front

Low Density Lipoprotein with HIGH cholestrol content (bad)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

High Density Lipoprotein with LOW cholestrol content (good)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Disease causing microorganism

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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Comments

Swallowtail

Ten questions from a mixture of topics which usefully target key terms and definitions in the AQA B1 unit which could be usefully used as a self-test.

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