Biology 1 Genes

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ORDER OF SIZE
CELL, NUCLEUS, CHROMOSOMES, DNA, GENE, BASE (CNC-DGB)
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WHAT DOES THE NUCLEUS CONTAIN
YOUR GENETIC MATERIAL
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WHAT IS A CHROMOSOME
A LONG MOLECULE OF DNA WRAPPED AROUND PROTEINS
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HOW MANY PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES IN A HUMAN CELL NUCLEUS
23
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WHAT IS A GENE
A SHORT LENGTH OF A CHROMOSOME
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WHAT DO GENES DO
CONTROL THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS
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WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF THE SAME GENE CALLED
ALLELES
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WHAT PART OF THE DNA CARRYS THE INSTRUCTIONS
THE BASE
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WHAT ARE THE FOUR BASES
A, T, C, G (AT TEN CAT GOES)
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WHAT DOES A FUNCTIONAL PROTEIN DO
ALLOWS THE BODY TO FUNCTION - DOH!
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WHAT DOES A STRUCTUAL PROTEIN DO
GIVES THE BODY STRUCTURE, RIGIDITY AND STRENGHTH
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WHAT IS A GENOTYPE
A PERSON'S GENETIC MAKEUP (TWINS HAVE THE SAME)
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WHAT IS A PHENOTYPE
OBSERVABLE PHYSICAL FEATURES
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WHAT IS CONTINUOUS VARIATION
CAN BE ANYWHERE ALONG A SCALE EG. HEIGHT
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WHAT IS DISCONTINUOUS VARIATION
FITS INTO A GROUP EG. EYE COLOUR
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WHY DO CHROMOSOMES COME IN PAIRS
BECAUSE WE HAVE TWO PARENTS
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HOW ARE SEX CELLS DIFFERENT
THEY CONTAIN 23 SINGLE CHROMOSOMES - NO PAIRS
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WHAT HAPPENS TO THE CHROMOSOMES WHEN THE SPERM FERTILISES THE EGG
THEY JOIN TOGETHER
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DO THE TWO CHROMOSOMES IN A PAIR ALWAYS CARRY THE SAME GENES
YES BUT THEY MIGHT HAVE DIFFERENT ALLELES
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WHY ARE SIBLINGS NOT IDENTICAL
BECAUSE ALL SEX CELLS PRODUCED BY ONE INDIVIDUAL ARE DIFFERENT
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WHAT DOES HOMOZYGOUS MEAN
TWO ALLELES OF A GENER ARE IDENTICAL
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WHAT DOES HETEROZYGOUS MEAN
TWO ALLEGLES OF A GENE ARE DIFFERENT
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WHAT CAN ALLELES BE
DOMINANT OR RECESSIVE
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2 DOMINANT = WHAT
DOMINANT
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1 DOMINANT PLUS 1 RECESSIVE = WHAT
DOMINANT
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2 RECESSIVE = WHAT
RECESSIVE
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HOW MANY CHROMOSOMES DO WE HAVE
46 (23 X 2)
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BOY =
XY
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GIRL =
XX
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WHAT DOES THE Y CHROMOSOME CARRY
A GENE THAT MAKES THE EMBRYO DEVELOP INTO A MALE
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WHAT DOES THE GENE DO
SPECIFIC PROTEIN PRODUCED WHICH CAUSES TESTES TO DEVELOP WHICH PRODUCE MALE SEX HORMONES WHICH MAKE THE REST OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM DEVELOP
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WHAT CAUSES GENETIC DISORDERS
FAULTY ALLELES
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DOES THE FAULTY ALLELE HAVE TO BE INHERITED FROM A PARENT
NO, BUT IT CAN BE
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IS HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE A DOMINANT DISORDER
YES
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WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS
SHAKING, MEMORY LOSS, INABITLITY TO CONCENTRATE, MOOD SWINGS
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IS SYSTIC FIBROSIS A DOMINANT DISORDER
NO. IT IS A RECESSIVE DISORDER. BOTH ALLELES OF THE PAIR MUST BE RECESSIVE
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WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS
MUCUS, BREATHING PROBS, CHEST INFECTIONS
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WHAT IS GENETIC SCREENING/TESTING
USED TO IDENTIFY IF SOMEONE HAS A GENETIC DISORDER
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IS GENETIC TESTING 100% ACCURATE
NO
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WHAT CAN BE THE IMPLICATIONS OF KNOWING YOU HAVE A GENETIC DISORDER
MAY HAVE TO TELL PARTNERS/KIDS, MIGHT WANT TO TERMINTE PREGNANCY, MIGHT BE HARD TO GET A JOB OR INSURANCE
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WHAT IS PRE-IMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS
TESTING EMBRYOS FOR GENETIC DISORDERS BEFORE THEY ARE PUT INTO THE WOMAN DURING IVF
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CAN FOETUS, CHILDREN AND ADULTS ALL BE GENETICALLY TESTED
YES
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WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF BEING A CLONE
USEFUL WHEN ORGANISM LIVES IN ISOLATION, DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICES, BUILD UP POP
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WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF BEING A CLONE
NO GENETIC VARIATION. IF CONDITIONS CHANGE COULD BE WIPED OUT, SHORTER LIVES, PAINFUL ILLNESSES
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WHY ARE CLONES GENETICALLY IDENTICAL
BECAUSE THEY HAVE THE SAME ALLELES
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HOW MANY PARENTS ARE NEEDED FOR ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
ONE
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WHAT CAN REPRODUCE IN THIS WAY
BACTERIA, SOME PLANTS
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WHEN DO YOU GET TWINS
WHEN A SINGLE FERTILIZED EGG SPLITS IN TWO AND TWO EMBRYOS DEVELOP
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WHAT IS BINNARY FISSION
WHEN BACTERIA MAKES ANOTHER COPY OF ITSELF
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WHAT ARE THE FOUR STEPS OF MAKING A CLONE IN THE LAB
REMOVE NUC. FROM EGG, INSERT NUC. FROM ADULT DONOR, SIMULATE CELL SO IT STARTS DIVIDING, THE EMBRYO IS IDENTICAL TO THE DONOR
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WHAT IS THERAPUTIC CLONING
COPYING SPECIFIC CELLS TO REPLACE DAMAGED CELLS
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WHAT ARE THE TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF STEM CELLS
EMBRYONIC AND ADULT
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WHERE DO EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS COME FROM
EMBRYOS WHICH ARE THEN DISTROYED - CONTRAVERSIAL
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WHERE DO ADULT STEM CELLS COME FROM
BONE MARROW
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WHY ARE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS BETTER
THEY CAN DEVELOP INTO ANY OTHER CELL TYPES
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WHAT ARE STEM CELLS USED FOR
TESTING NEW DRUGS, SWITCHING ON AND OFF PARTICULAR GENES, RENEWING DAMAGE OR DESTROYED CELLS
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

WHAT DOES THE NUCLEUS CONTAIN

Back

YOUR GENETIC MATERIAL

Card 3

Front

WHAT IS A CHROMOSOME

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

HOW MANY PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES IN A HUMAN CELL NUCLEUS

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

WHAT IS A GENE

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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