Biology 1

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What is a pathogen?
A microorganism that enters the body and causes disease.
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Explain how viruses replicate within your body.
Viruses repliate by invading your cells and using the cell machinery to produce many copies of themselves. Then they cause the cell to break open, releasing new viruses into your body.
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What are antigens?
Unique molecules on the surface of cells/pathogens/microorganisms.
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What are antibiotis designed to do?
To kill/harm pathogenic bacteria without killing your own body cells.
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Why are cultures of microorganisms grown at temperatures no higher than 25 degrees in school laboratories?
To prevent the growth of harmful pathogens.
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What is an epidemic?
A big outbreak of disease.
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What is a pandemic?
When a disease spreads all over the world.
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Antibiotics can be used to treat certain illnesses. 1.Why would a course of antibiotics not be suitable for treatment of flu? 2.What might the innapropriate use of antibiotics lead to?
1.Flu is caused by a virus and antibiotics are not effective against viruses. 2.Innapropriate use of antibiotics increases the chances of antibiotic resistance strains of bacteria emerging.
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Describe three ways that white blood cells fight pathogens.
White blood cells ingest/engulf pathogens, produce antibodies to kill pathogens and produce antitoxins that counteract the pathogenic toxins.
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Explain what vaccination involves and how being vaccinated against typhoid can prevent a person from catching the disease.
Injected with dead/inactive typhoid bacteria.Dead/inactive bacteria carry antigens-body produces antibodies to attack them.If live typhoid bacteria infects the body white blood cells can rapidly mass produce antibodies to kill off the bacteria.
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What are the five sense organs in the human body?
Eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin.
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In what form is information transmitted along nerve cells?
As electrical impulses.
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What are the two different types of effector in the human body?
Muscles and glands.
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What name is given to the connection between two nerve cells?
A synapse
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What are hormones secreted by?
Glands
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Give one difference between a nervous response and a hormonal response.
Nerves carry messages faster than hormones/ Nerves act for a short time, but hormones act for a long time.
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Gordon accidently touches a hot object, causing his hand to immediately move away from it. What is the name of this type of automatic response?
A reflex or reflex action.
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On the diagram: 1.Which letter points to a relay neurone? 2.Which letter points to an effector?
1.B 2.D
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Explain how an electrical impulse in one neurone is able to pass to the next neurone.
When the electrical impulse reaches the end of the neurone, it stimulates the release of a chemical. The chemical diffuses across the synapse to activate an electrical impulse in the next neurone.
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Give one physiological, to the body, of these automatic responses.
Mdinimise damage to the body(because they are so quick)/ help to prevent injury.
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Hormones are chemical messangers that carry information around the body. During the menstrual cycle, the hormone FSH stimulates the production of oestrogen in the ovaries. Describe how this process is carried out.
FSH is produced in the pituary gland. It is carried in the blood plasma to other parts of the body. It acts on target cells in the ovaries stimulating them to produce oestrogen.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Explain how viruses replicate within your body.

Back

Viruses repliate by invading your cells and using the cell machinery to produce many copies of themselves. Then they cause the cell to break open, releasing new viruses into your body.

Card 3

Front

What are antigens?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are antibiotis designed to do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why are cultures of microorganisms grown at temperatures no higher than 25 degrees in school laboratories?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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