Biology

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  • Created by: shannon
  • Created on: 08-05-13 10:06
Where does Gas exchange take place?
in the alveoli in the lungs
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How are the Alveoli adapted to their function?
The alveoli have thin walls (one cell thick), have an excellent blood supply and there are millions of them which gives the lungs a large surface area.
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What happens in gas exchange?
gases are exchanged (swapped) between the atmosphere and the blood, through the respiratory surfaces of the lungs.
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What happens when air is breathed in?
Air is breathed in through the mouth, passes through the trachea, through the bronchus, through the bronchioles and into the alveoli. This air will have a high concentration of oxygen.
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What is diffusion?
A net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
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What is a steep concentration gradient?
Constant blood supply to alveoli from cells of body (deoxygenated blood).
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What are the normal values of Lung function?
Breathing rate – 12-15 breaths per minute, Tidal volume – 400-500 dm3, Vital capacity (male) – 4.8 dm3, Vital capacity (female) – 3.1dm3 and Peak flow – 400-600 dm3 min-1
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What happens during inhalation?
the diaphragm contracts and flattens, intercostal muscles contract and the ribcage moves upwards and outwards and the pressure in the lungs decreased.. leading to air rushing into the lungs
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What happens during exhalation?
the diaphragm muscle relaxes and moves upwards, intercostal muscle relax and move downwards and inwards and the pressure in the lungs increases.. leading to air going out of the lungs
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How do you measure someone's respiratory system?
by taking measurements like: breathing rate, tidal volume, vital capacity and peak expiriatory flow.
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What is breathing rate?
the number of breaths per minute whilst resting (12-15 breaths per min)
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what is Tidal volume?
The volume of air moved in and out of the lungs during normal relaxed breathing (400-500cm3)
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what is Vital capacity?
The total amount of air that can be expired after maximum inhalation. (male=4.8dm3, female=3.1dm3)
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what is Peak expiratory flow?
How fast a person can breathe out (400-600dm3min-1)
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What is residual volume?
the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation
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What is total lung capacity?
the volume in the lungs at maximal inflation
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what two devices are used by doctors to test lung function?
spirometers and peak flow meters
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what does a spirometer measure?
It measures how much air is in the lungs and how quickly it can be moved.
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what does a peak flow meter measure?
Peak flow meters measure the fastest rate that gas can be expelled from the lungs.
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What is inspiration?
breathing in
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what is expiration?
breathing out
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what is breathing rate?
the number of breaths per minute whilst resting
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what is Expiratory reserve volume?
The additional air that can be forcibly expired after a normal breath(tidal volume)
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what is Inspiratory reserve volume?
The extra air that can be inhaled at the end of a normal breath when maximum effort is made
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What is restricted lung function?
lower than expected vital capacity.
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what is Obstructed lung function?
difficulty getting air into and out of the lungs.
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what is vasodilation?
this is the increase of the diameter of the blood vessels, which is a results from relaxation of the smooth muscle within the wall of a vessel. which causes an increase of blood flow.
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What is vasoconstriction?
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, which causes a decrease in blood flow.
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What are Xrays?
X-rays are powerful, short wavelength electromagnetic waves. They are made when fast moving electrons are slowed down rapidly by hitting a tungsten target inside the X-ray machine.
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What do X-rays pass easily through?
X-rays pass easily through soft tissues.
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What are X-rays absorbed by?
They are absorbed by materials with a high atomic density such as bone. The X-rays will produce an image on photographic film held in a light free container.
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What is an advantage of X-rays?
They have the advantage of being widely available and a quick and easy to use.
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What is an disadvantage of x-rays?
they can be harmful, particularly to the gonads and unborn children. They can cause localised tissue damage and cancers
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What is double circulation?
The heart is a pump that sends some blood to the lungs to be oxygenated and some blood. that has already been oxygenated to the rest of the body. The blood on the left side is kept separate from the blood on the right side.
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When might a person be at risk of hypothermia, heat exhaustion or heat stroke?
Hypothermia – when they become very cold and their body temperature drops below 32°C Heat exhaustion or heat stroke – when they become very hot and their body temperature rises above 38°C in absence of an infection.
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What is homeostasis?
Homeostasis is a mechanism by which internal conditions are controlled.
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How is normal body temperature regulated and maintained?
homeostatic mechanisms and is maintained at a more or less constant value
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how is breathing rate measured?
timing breaths per minute
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how is blood pressure measured?
using a manual or electronic digital sphygmomanometer
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how is tidal volume and vital capacity of the lungs measured?
using a spirometer
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how is peak flow measured?
using a peak flow meter
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what are the values for blood pressure?
18 year old male=120/80, 40 year old male=135/85 and 20 year old female=123/80. 40 year old female=133/85
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normal body temperature
36.8
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death
below 25
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hypothermia
32
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fever
above 37.2
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heat exhaustion or heat stroke
likely above 38 in absence of infection
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high temperatures leading to death
above 43
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chemical equation for anaerobic respiration
glucose -> lactic acid OR
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chemical equation for aerobic respiration
glucose+oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water OR
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are the Alveoli adapted to their function?

Back

The alveoli have thin walls (one cell thick), have an excellent blood supply and there are millions of them which gives the lungs a large surface area.

Card 3

Front

What happens in gas exchange?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens when air is breathed in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is diffusion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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