Biology

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Protein
Large molecules made of many amino acids joined together. They have many functions like in the muscles, hormones and enzymes
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Antibodies
Special proteins in the body that bind to a particular antigen+ destroy a particular pathogen
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Hormone
Chemical made by a gland and carried in the blood to its target organs
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Amino acids
Molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. They join together to make a protein
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Catalysts
Substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up in the reaction
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Enzymes
Biological catalyst made of protein. They catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms
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Substrate
Substance acted upon by an enzyme in a chemical reaction. The substrate molecules are changed into product molecules
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Specific
Enzymes are specific and act only on one substrate
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Denature
Describes the state of a protein when its shape has altered and it can no longer carry out its function
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Active site
Is the shape of one particular area of an enzyme molecule. The substrate fits into it to make a bigger molecule.
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Amylase
Enzyme that catalyses breakdown of starch to sugar molecules
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Protease
Enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of proteins to amino acids
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Lipase
Enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of fats to fatty acids and glycerol
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Digestion
Breaking down larger molecules into smaller ones and absorbs these into the body
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Detergent
Substance added to water to improve its cleaning properties
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Carbohydrase
Enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of large carbohydrate molecules such as starch to smaller sugar molecules
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Starch
Large insoluble carbohydrate molecule
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Glucose
Type of sugar
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Glycogen
Large insoluble carbohydrate molecule; similar to starch
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Fructose
Type of sugar, tastes sweeter than glucose
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Isomerase
Type of enzyme that rearranges the atoms in a molecule
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Fermenter
Large container used for growing large numbers of microorganisms
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Respiration
Process by which living things release energy from carbohydrates, also producing water and carbon dioxide
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Mitochondria
Where aerobic respiration takes place. Found in animal + plant cells
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Lactic acid
Chemical made from incomplete breakdown of glucose during anaerobic respiration
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Oxygen Debt
Lack of oxygen in the muscles cells and is needed to oxidise lactic acid in the muscles to carbon dioxide and water
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Mitosis
Type of cell division that occurs in body cells, resulting in two genetically identical cells
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Chromosome
In a cell nucleus and contains one molecule of DNA that's coiled into twisted ladder
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Diploid
Describes a cell that has a nucleus with two sets of chromosomes; a body cell
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Asexual reproduction
Reproduction with out gametes, using mitosis
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Allele
Different version of the same gene
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Gametes
Sex cells and have half number of normal chromosomes
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Meiosis
Type of cell division that occurs to form sex cells, resulting in 4 genetically different cells
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Haploid
Describes a cell that has a nucleus with only one set of chromosomes; a sex cell
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Zygote
Diploid cell resulting from the fusion of an egg and a sperm
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Fertilisation
The joining of male and female gametes
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F1 generation
First daughter generation; the offspring from genetic cross between two true-breeding parents
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Dominant
Visible characteristic present in an organism even when one allele is present
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Recessive
Visible characteristic that's only present in an organism if 2 alleles are present
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Monohybrid inheritance
Inheritance pattern of single characteristic, determined by one gene
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DNA
Chemical that carries genetic code
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Sex chromosomes
Chromosomes involved with determining the sex of an individual. If 2 X female, if 1 X 1 Y male
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DNA bases
Molecules arranged in pairs within each molecule of DNA. A with T and C with G
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Stem Cell
Undifferentiated cell that divides by mitosis and capable of differentiating into any cell types found in that organism
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DNA fingerprinting
Technique analysing parts of DNA of someone + compares with other people's samples to find if someone committed a crime or whether they're related
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Evolution
Gradual change in an organism over time
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Fossil
Preserved remains of ancient living things
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Speciation
Separate evolution of 2 populations of same species to form 2 separate species
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Isolation
Separation of 2 populations of a species so that they cannot interbreed, for example by a geographical barrier like a mountain or ocean
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Mutation
Change in structure of a gene. It may occur in gene coding for a different protein/charcteristic
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Special proteins in the body that bind to a particular antigen+ destroy a particular pathogen

Back

Antibodies

Card 3

Front

Chemical made by a gland and carried in the blood to its target organs

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. They join together to make a protein

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up in the reaction

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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