Biology 1.2 Lipids

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What difference do lipids have to carbohydrates in organic elements?
Like carbohydrates, lipids contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. But in proportion to carbon and hydrogen they contain less oxygen
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What is a triglyceride?
A combination of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule
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In a lipid what molecules stay the same and what will varey?
Glycerol stays the same but the fatty acid component varies
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How are triglycerides formed?
Fatty acids join to glycerol in a condensation reaction where three molecules of water a removed
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What bond is formed in place of the 3 water molecules?
An oxygen bond (ester bond) is formed between the glycerol and fatty acid
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Describe a fatty acid molecule to the best of your ability
It is an organic molecule with a -COOH group attached to a hydrocarbon tail.
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What is a 'saturated' fat?
A hydrocarbon with no carbon-carbon double bond
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What if a double bond is present?
Then the fat is unsaturated
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State an important chemical property of lipids
They are insoluble in water but dissolve in organic solvents such as acetone and alcohol
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Which lipid contributes mostly to heart disease?
Saturated
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Why do fats make good energy storage?
They contain more Carbon-Hydrogen bonds than carbohydrates
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Name and explain one role of a triglycerol
Produces a metabolic water when oxidised, important for animals that do not drink much water (desert animals)
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Name 3 other roles of a lipid
Waterproofing, Protection and insulation
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How are phospholipids different from lipids?
One fatty acid group is replaced with a phosphate group which is polar and soluble in water
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What is meant by polar?
Molecules that have two ends or poles that interact differently to water and fat
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Which part of the phospholipid molecule is hydrophobic?
The 2 fatty acid tails
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The head is hydrophilic. What does this mean?
That its attracted to water but not fat and is polar
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Why are phospholipids important in a plasma membrane?
Phospholipids allow lipid soluble substances to enter and leave the cell and prevent water soluble substances entering and leaving the cell
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a triglyceride?

Back

A combination of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule

Card 3

Front

In a lipid what molecules stay the same and what will varey?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are triglycerides formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What bond is formed in place of the 3 water molecules?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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