Biology 1.1 Carbohydrates

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What elements make up a carbohydrate?
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
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What is the basic monomer unit for carbohydrates?
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The joining of two monosaccharides forms a what?
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How are polysaccharides formed?
They are formed when very large number of monosaccharide units linked together
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State two main functions of monosaccharides.
Used as energy in respiration and they act as building blocks for larger molecules
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How is energy given out by monosaccharides?
Carbon - Hydrogen bonds are broken
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How are monosaccharides joined?
With the use of Glycosidic bonds
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What is the name given to 2 monosaccharides joining?
Condensation reaction
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What is given off as a result of a glycosidic bond forming?
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What is Hydrolysis?
Glycosidic bonds linking monosaccharides breaks and water released from condensation is restored
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How do you test for the presence of a sugar?
Benedicts test
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How is this test done?
Add an equal volume of Benedict's reagent to food sample dissolved in water, heat in water bath to 90 degrees.
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State test result possibilities
From blue being negative, to red being high. Colour depends on amount of reducing sugar present
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Why can't glucose, vital for energy in cells, be stored the way it is?
The water soluble glucose molecule will draw water towards it by osmosis
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How is this problem avoided?
By converting it into a storage product, polysaccharide, that is insoluble in water (Starch)
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What is starch made up of?
Amylose and amylopectin
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There are 2 types of glucose. Alpha and Beta glucose. Where can Alpha glucose be found?
In starch
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Why is Alpha glucose used in starch and not Beta glucose?
Alpha glucose molecule contains 1-4 glycosidic linkages that causes the chain coil.
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What is the main energy storage in animals?
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What is the difference between amylopectin molecules and glycogen molecules?
Glycogen molecules are more branched
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Where can Beta glucose be found?
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Cellulose consists of many long parallel chains of Beta glucose molecules. How are these held together?
The lines are cross linked to each other by hydrogen bonds
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How does a wall like structure form with Beta glucose but not Alpha glucose?
The chain has adjacent glucose molecules rotated by 180 degrees that form a chain
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What are microfibrils?
Cellulose molecules that become tightly cross linked to form bundles
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What is chitin?
Chitin is a polysaccharide similar to cellulose but has amino acids added to form an exoskeleton
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What is this exoskeleton called and why is it useful to insects?
Mucopolysaccharide. It is strong, waterproof and lightweight
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Card 2


What is the basic monomer unit for carbohydrates?



Card 3


The joining of two monosaccharides forms a what?


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Card 4


How are polysaccharides formed?


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Card 5


State two main functions of monosaccharides.


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