Biology Unit 2

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What is the difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells?
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles and Prokaryotic cells do not. Eukaryotic cells make up Animal cells, Plants, Protoctist e.g Algae and Fungi whereas Prokaryotic cells make up bacterica and blue-green algae.
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What is common between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
They both contain Ribosomes but the Ribosomes in Eukaryotic cells are larger 80s but in Prokaryotic cells they are smaller 70s.
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What is the difference in the genetic material in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic?
In prokaryotic has a single strand coiled up in the centre to form the Nucleoid which is circular and it also has additional bits of DNA called plasmids. The Eukaryotic cells the genetic material is enclosed in a membrane in the Nucleus and is linear
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Where does respiration take place in the Prokaryotic cells and compared to what in the Eukaryotic cells?
The mesosomes compared to the Mitochondrion.
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Features of the Nucleus
Nuclear Pores- chemicals can pass in and out, Chromatin-DNA bonded to protein, Nucleolus- production of ribosomes.
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What is the largest organelle?
Nucleus
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Features of Mitochondria?
Ribosomes, Matrix, Stalked Particles, Cristae, and Genetic Material.
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What are the centrioles important for?
Important for cell division.
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What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
Performs several fucntions gives cytoplasm it's structure and keeps organelles in place and also for cell movement and transport within cells.
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What is the cytoskeleton made up of ?
Microtubules and Microfilaments.
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Explain the Protein Transport in Cells?
Nucleus-> R.E.R-> Golgi->SV
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What happens in the cisternae of the R.E.R?
The protein is trimmed and made into a tertiary structure.
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How is the Golgi Body formed?
Formed by the membranes of the vesicles fusing together.
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what is the process that releases the protein into the cell surface membrane?
Exocytosis
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What do the lysosomes contain and what is their role?
Hydrolytic Enzymes and apoptosis organelles in the body that are worn out are destroyed.
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What is asexual reproduction?
The production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent cell or organism.
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What are chromosomes?
Mass of coiled threads of DNA and protein.
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What is the importance of the Cell Cycle?
Cells divide on a regular basis to bring about growth and asexual reproduction.
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What is the different stages?
G1-new organelles synthesised, S- DNA replicated, G2-Replicated DNA checked for errors. (G1,S,G2- Interphase) Mitosis - growth and replacement of cells production of genetically identical daughter cells, Cytokinesis- dividing of cytoplasm.
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What is the cell cycle controlled by?
Chemical signals, control chemicals called cyclins which are small protein they attack to enzymes called CDK and form the cyclin/CDK complex which adds phosphate group to other proteins which changes shape and brings about next stage.
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Stages of Mitosis and Explain what happens in each
Prophase,Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
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Why is Asexual Reproduction better than Sexual Reproduction?
Sexual production relies on two gamete meeting and its expensive in terms of bodily resources.
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What is an advantage of Sexual Reproduction?
Produces genetic variety so not all organism are vulnerable to change in the environment.
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Why cant we have four sets of chromosomes (92)?
Heavily loaded with genetic material and lose the characteristic number for species the cells would break down and fail to function.
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How doe we avoid having four sets of chromosomes?
Haploid nucleus with 23 chromosomes not 46.
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What are the gonads?
Testes and Ovaries.
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Difference between Sperm and Egg?
Sperm- many, mini, motile. Egg- Few, Fat, Fixed
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What is Meiosis?
Reduction division which occurs in sex organs two nuclear division results in four haploid daughter cells with unique genetic material?
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Stages of Meiosis
P1(random assortment and independent assortment), M1,(crossing over occurs) A1, T1, M2.A2.T2.
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How does genetic variety occur in Independent/Random Assortment?
Independent and Random Assortment- Chromosomes from the individual two parents are distributed into gametes at random.
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How does genetic variety occur in crossing over?
Multienzymes complex cut and stitch bits of the maternal and paternal chromatids together chromatids break at the point called chiasmita in the process mutations happens which cause variations.
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What is Gametogeneis?
Gametes are formed in the process the spermatozoa produced spermatogenesis and the ova is produced in oogenesis.
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How do the special cells differentiate into gametes?
The special cells or the primordial germ cells in the gonads divide, grow, divide again then differentiate into gametes.
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Features of the sperm cell that helps it carry out its function?
Haploid Nucleus, Flagellum, Streamlined, Acrosome and Mitochondria.
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Features of the egg cell that helps it carry out its functions?
Cytoplasm with many food reserves, haploid nucleus, jelly like layer,no contractile proteins.
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The process of Fertilisation
Acrosome region matures, ovum hasnt fully completed meisios, surrounded by zona pellucida, many sperm cluster and once head touches the acrosome reaction is triggered,one sperm wiggles it ways through the oocyte undergoes second meiotic division for
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continued
haploid nucleus, head absorbs water and releases chromosomes and diploid zygote is formed. Cortical granules are released from the oocyte which combines with the zona pellucida to form tough fertilization membrane,
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Why is tough fertilastion membrane needed?
Prevent polyspermy
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What does the zygote have the potential to do?
Form all 216 cells because it is totipotent.
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What is the cleavage and what does it result in?
cells divide repeatedly without normal interphase the result is a mass of small, identical, undifferentiated cells forming a hollow sphere known as blastocyst.
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What is the potency of the inner cell mass?
Pluripotent
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What is clone?
group of cells/organism that are genetically identical and have been produced from cells with the same genetic material.
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What is multipotent, totipotent, pluripotent?
Multipotent-few, Totipotent- All, Pluripotent-Many but not all.
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How does cell differentiation occur?
Chemical stimulus, different genes active or inactive, active ones go through transcription protein is made and this brings about permanent changes to the cell.
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What is the problem with Adult Stem Cells?
Difficult to extract, limited amount and difficult to grow in the lab.
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Continuous Variation
Normal distribution graph, affected by the environment, polygenic expression,
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Discontinuous Variation
Bar chart, features present or not, single genes no environmental input
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What is Monoamine Oxidase A?
Enzyme in the nervous system, liver, gut it breaks down monoamines.
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What are Monoamines?
They are eaten as part of the diet and also transmitters such as serotonin.
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What can too much or too little of MAOA cause?
Illnesses such as depression, Parkinson and affects mood and behaviour
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What is cancer?
The uncrontolled cell growth of abnormal cells forming a tumour.
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Protoncogene?
Protoncogence codes for protein that stimulate cell growth if this mutates it forms oncogene which produces uncontrolled amount of protein so the cell cycle is continously stimulated.
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Tumour suppresor gene?
Chemical to supress cycle if mutation happens the brake is removed and it goes into uncontrolled cell growth.
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What are the environmental causes of cancer?
Smoking, UV light, alcohol, Ionising Radiation.
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Card 2

Front

What is common between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?

Back

They both contain Ribosomes but the Ribosomes in Eukaryotic cells are larger 80s but in Prokaryotic cells they are smaller 70s.

Card 3

Front

What is the difference in the genetic material in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where does respiration take place in the Prokaryotic cells and compared to what in the Eukaryotic cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Features of the Nucleus

Back

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