Biology unit 1

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What does being addicted mean?
If you stop taking them you will have withdrawal symptoms
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What are 3 types of drugs?
Medicinal, Recreational & performance
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What is an example of a recreational drug?
heroine
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What is an example of medicinal?
antibiotics
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What is an example of performance drug?
Steroids
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What are two impacts of performance drugs?
Health and ethical impact
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What are negative effects steroids can have on the body?
High blood pressure
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Are all performance enhancing drugs banned from sports?
Yes
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What are ethical issues against drugs?
It is unfair and not all athletes are informed about the effects the drugs can have on them
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What is claimed to be an impact of cannabis smoke?
Causes health problem but not completely proven
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What are the 3 stage of testing drugs?
1) tested on human cells and tissue 2) live animal 3) volunteers
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how many chromosomes do humans have?
46
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what is meant by the metabolic rate?
rate a which a chemical reaction takes place in the body
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what can affect the metabolic rate?
gender, genes, amount of exercise you do
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what is a negative impact of taking Statins?
may cause liver or muscle damage
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what is the name of microorganisms that cause diseases?
pathogens
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how do viruses and bacteria make us ill?
bacteria release toxins and viruses reproduce in the cell
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what are the two main types of pathogens
bacteria and viruses
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what can stop pathogens making us ill?
skin, mucus, hydrochloric acid
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how do white blood cells defend against pathogens?
release antitoxins, release antibodies and engulf pathogens
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what is the stimulus pathway?
stimulus, receptor, sensory neuron, relay neuron, motor neuron, effector, responce
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what is a reflex reaction?
a responce where you dont think about it
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what are the two examples of plant hormones?
auxins and gibberellins
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what do plant hormones do?
they control the growth of the shoot and roots
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what are chromosomes made of?
DNA
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what is a gene?
A short length of chromosomes
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what is a mutation?
a change in gene or chromosome
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what do carbs do?
release energy
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why are carbs important in our diet?
good source of energy
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what do fats do?
keep us warm and release energy
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what does protein do for us?
growth, cell repair and cell replacement
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what does fibre do for us?
keeps everything moving slowly through the digestive system
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what do vitamens and minerals do?
keep our skin, bones, blood and everything else healthy
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what does saturated fats do to us?
increase your blood cholesterol level
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name the problems of eating too much salt?
high blood pressure and heart problems
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eating too little can?
slow growth, fatigue and irregular periods
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what are in vaccinations?
dead or inactive microorganisms
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what do the vaccinations carry?
antigens which cause your body to produce antibodies to attack them
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why does bacteria become resistance?
doctor prescribe it when it isn't needed so it mutates
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what does FSH do?
causes egg to mature in one of the ovaries
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what chemical does FSH release?
oestrogen
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what does LH do?
stimulates the release of an egg
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Which bacteria is already resistant to antibiotics?
MRSA
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What do plants get from the soil?
Water, minerals and ions
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What living factors are there for animals and plants?
A change in infectious diseases, predators, prey and competitors
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What non living factors are the for animals and plants?
A change in temperature, rainfall and pollution
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Where does the atmosphere get Carbon dioxide from?
Animals, plants, burning and decay
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What is gamete?
A egg and sperm cell
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How many chromosomes does a gamete contain?
23 each
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What is asexual reproduction?
Where there is only one parent because it's a clone
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How is a new cell made?
The ordinary cell divides into two
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What are the two ways plants can be cloned?
Cuttings and tissue culture
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What is cuttings?
Take bite of the plants then plant them in soil to create identical copies
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What is advantage of cutting?
It's cheap and quick
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What is tissue culture?
A few plant cells are put into a medium culture with hormones and these grow into a new plant which are clones of the parent plants
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What are the advantages of tissue culture?
Quick and needs very little space and can be grown all year
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What is genetic engineering?
Basic idea is to copy a useful gene from one chromosomes into the cell of another
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What is genetic engineering good for?
Farmers can make there crops immune to viruses by modifying them
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Card 2

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What are 3 types of drugs?

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Medicinal, Recreational & performance

Card 3

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What is an example of a recreational drug?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an example of medicinal?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What is an example of performance drug?

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