Biology Unit

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What is the function of the plasma membrane ?
This can be known as the membrane is permeable and it regulates the transport of materials into and out of the cell, it also makes separation to the cell contents outside the environment.
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What is the function of the cytoplasm ?
This is the maintenance of the cell shape and stores in chemicals needed by the cell mainly for reactions.
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What is the function of the nucleus ?
It controls and regulates the cellular activity and genetic material known as the chromatin, DNA in the proteins and also knows how to make these proteins.
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What is the function of the nucleolus ?
It makes up the RNA and also the ribosomes.
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What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum ?
This can be shown where the protein synthesis takes place on the ribosomes and the newly synthesised proteins which have been transported to the Golgi apparatus.
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What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum ?
This is responsible for synthesis and the transport of lipids and carbohydrates.
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What is the function of the Golgi apparatus ?
This is where newly made proteins are received here from the rough ER. The Golgi apparatus modifies them and then packages the proteins into vesicles to be transported where they need to be.
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What is the function of vesicles ?
This transports vesicles which are used to transport materials inside the cell and secretory vesicles transport proteins that are to be released from the cell to the cell surface membrane.
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What is the function of the lysosomes ?
It breaks down waste material including old organelles.
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What is the function of ribosomes ?
This is where protein synthesis occurs.
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What is the function of the mitochondria ?
This is the site of the final stages of cellular respiration.
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What is the function of centrioles ?
This is where they form spindle fibres during cell division.
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What is the function of the cell wall ?
It protects and supports the cell and whole plant.
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What is the function of the chloroplasts ?
It can be known as the site of photosynthesis where light energy is trapped by the chlorophyll and then is used to produce carbohydrate molecules from water and carbon dioxide.
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What is the function of the vacuole ?
It maintains turgor and ensures a rigid framework in the cell.
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What is the function of the tonoplast ?
It selectively permeable to allow small molecules to pass through.
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What is the function of the amyloplast ?
It is mainly responsible for the synthesis and storage of starch granules.
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What is the function of the plasmodesmata ?
It enables transport and communication between individual plant cells.
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What is the function of the pits ?
It allows water to enter and leave xylem vessels.
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What is the function of the capsule ?
It protects the cell and prevents desiccation.
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What is the function of the nucleoid ?
It is the region where the generic information can be found and controls their cellular activity.
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What is the function of the plasmid ?
This is where the genes are carried and this can be benefited due to the survival of the organism.
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What is the palisade mesophyll cell specialised in ?
A palisade cell is specialised for photosynthesis because they contain the most chloroplasts and the chloroplast is organelle which is responsible for photosynthesis.
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What is the root hair cell specialised in ?
The root hair cell is specialised to collect water and mineral nutrients that soil contains. It then takes the water and mineral nutrients up through the roots to the rest of the plant, where it is used for different purposes.
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What is the sperm cell specialised in ?
Sperm cells are specialised to fertilize the female gamete (egg cell).
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What is the egg cell specialised in ?
It is specialised when it joins with the sperm, the male gamete, during fertilization to form the embryo, which will eventually grow into a new organism.
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What is the red blood cell specialised in ?
It is specialised due to the fact it contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells.
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What is the white blood cell specialised in ?
It is specialised where it fights diseases as there are three main uses it can do this procedure such as ingesting pathogens, antibodies to destroy them and also produce antitoxins to neutralise pathogens.
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What are the four tissue types ?
They can be classified as the following: epithelium, muscle, connective and nervous.
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What are the different types of epithelial tissue ?
They can be presented as: squamous, columnar and endothelium.
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Where is the squamous epithelial tissue found and what does it provide ?
It is found in the alveoli in the lungs which provide a short diffusion pathway which allows rapid diffusion of oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide into the lungs.
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Where is the columnar epithelial tissue found and what does it provide ?
It is found in the trachea and they sweep away pathogens from the lungs by using secrete mucus and it helps to trap any unwanted particles that are present in the air that you breathe in.
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Where is the endothelial tissue found and what does it provide ?
It is found in the lining of the heart, the cells being present along with it as they provide a short diffusion pathway for the movement of products in digestion and the blood plasma and tissue fluid in and out.
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Where is the skeletal muscle found and what does it provide ?
It is found attached to bones and it is able to control its contraction and relaxation where it makes contracts in responses to reflexes.
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Where is the cardiac muscle found and what does it provide ?
It is found only in the heart and contracts to a steady rate in order to make a heartbeat where it is not under voluntary control.
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Where is the smooth muscle found and what does it provide ?
It is found in the walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach and bladder but is not under voluntary control.
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What is the sarcomere ?
It is the basic functional unit of muscle fiber; array of thick and thin filaments between two z disks.
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What are thick filaments ?
It is known as myosin which is a protein.
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What are thin filaments ?
It is known as actin (protein) + small amounts of troponin and tropomyosin.
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What are the striations ?
They are dark A bands and light I bands.
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What are A bands ?
This is bisected by H zone w/ M line (band) through center of H zone.
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What are I bands ?
This is bisected by Z disk (line).
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What are neurons ?
They are cells that transmit electrical message from one area of the body to another area.
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What is the axon ?
The end of the neuron that releases neurotransmitters away from the cell body.
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What is the dendrite ?
It is known as the end of the neuron that conducts electrical currents toward the cell body.
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What is the myelin ?
They are considered as white, fatty material that covers long nerve fibers, protecting and insulating the fibers, as well as increasing the speed of impulse transmission.
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What are schwann cells ?
These are specialized cells that myelinate the fibers of neurons found in the PNS.
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What is the synapse ?
The junction or point of close contact between neurons.
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What are the nodes of ranvier ?
These are gaps in the myelin sheath between schwann cells.
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What are neurotransmitters ?
They are chemicals released by neurons that stimulate other neurons, muscles, or glands.
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What is depolarization ?
The state in which the polarity of the neuron is reversed as sodium ions rush into the neuron.
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What is polarized ?
It is the electrical condition of the plasma membrane of a resting neuron when it is inactive. Has fewer positive ions sitting on its inner face than on its outer face.
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What is repolarization ?
This is the period during which potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron resulting in a return of the polarization to its resting state.
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What is the sodium and potassium pump ?
The process by which ATP is used to move sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions back into the cell; completely restores the resting conditions of the neuron.
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What is parkinson's disease ?
It's a genetic disease where it affects the nervous system which is not able to produce the naturally occuring chemical dopamine which is a neurotransmitter that helps smooth and normal movements.
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Card 2

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What is the function of the cytoplasm ?

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This is the maintenance of the cell shape and stores in chemicals needed by the cell mainly for reactions.

Card 3

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What is the function of the nucleus ?

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Card 4

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What is the function of the nucleolus ?

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Card 5

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What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum ?

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