Biology U5 Week 1

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Gene
Length of DNA that codes for a polypeptide
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Polypeptide
Polymer consisting of a chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
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Genome
Entire DNA sequence of an organism (Humans:3 billion base pairs +)
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Histone
5 proteins that organise DNA into proteins- the DNA winds around the histone.
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Transcription
Creation of a single stranded mRNA copy of DNA coding strand
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Translation
Assembly of polypeptides at ribosomes
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Mutation
Change in genetic material of a cell
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Mutagen
A chemical or physical agent causing a mutation
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Point Mutation
Alters 1 codon in the sequence. Substitutions
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Frame Shift Mutation
Alters whole sequence of codons after that mutation. Additions, Deletions
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Exon
Codes for an amino acid
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Intron
Doesn't result in an amino acid
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Homeobox genes
Control development of the body plan of an organism
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Hox Cluster
An arrangement of homeobox genes
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Apoptosis
Programmed cell death (usually in development)
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Necrosis
Untidy, damaging cell death (usually after trauma)
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Meiosis
Reduction division, resulting in haploid daughter cells
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Locus
Position of a gene on a chromosome
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Crossing Over
When lengths of DNA are swapped from one chromatid to another.
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Allele
A version of a gene. Alleles have a difference in the DNA base sequence expressed as a slightly different polypeptide
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Polymer consisting of a chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds

Back

Polypeptide

Card 3

Front

Entire DNA sequence of an organism (Humans:3 billion base pairs +)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

5 proteins that organise DNA into proteins- the DNA winds around the histone.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Creation of a single stranded mRNA copy of DNA coding strand

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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