Biology Topic 3 & 4 Keywords

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Independent Assortment
The process of random segregation and assortment of chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis resulting in the production of genetically unique gametes.
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Crossing Over
Process during Meosis where 2 chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material
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Sister Chromatids
Replicated copies of a single chromosome that are identical and are created for use in cell division
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Centromere
Holds sister chromatids together
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Homologous Chromosones
Two non identical copies of a chromosomes one from each parent and are used in reproduction cell division.
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Locus
Location of genes on a chromosome
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Linkage
Genes with loci on the same chromosome are linked. Stay together during independent assortment.
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Sex Linked
All genes on sex chromosomes are passed on with those that determine sex.
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Gamete
Male and female sex cells that join at fertilisation to form a zygote. 23 chromosomes.
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Flagellum
Tail of sperm enables swimming powered by energy source of ATP
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Mitochondrion
Respiring mitochondria produce energy (ATP) for swimming.
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Acrosome
Fuses with sperm cell membrane & releases digestive enzymes to break down zone pellucid.
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Zona Pellucida
Protective glycoprotein layer
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Follicle Cells
From the ovary and forms a protective coating.
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Acrosome Reaction
Acrosome fuses with sperm cell membrane and releases digestive enzymes to digest through follicle cells, zone pellucida and ovum
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Cortical Reaction
Enzymes released from lysosomes thicken zona pellucida so no more sperm can enter.
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Stem Cells
Can produce all cell types
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Totipotency
Can produce all cell types
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Pluripotency
Can produce all specialised cells
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Multipotency
From adult body tissue, e.g found in bone marrow
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Differentiation
Section of DNA contains a cluster of structural genes transcribed together, control elements and sometimes a regulatory gene
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Embryonic Stem Cells
From early embryos and can develop into all cell types
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Adult Stem Cells
From adult body tissue, e.g found in bone marrow
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Operon
Section of DNA contains a cluster of structural genes transcribed together, control elements and sometimes a regulatory gene
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Lac Operon Model
To express the control of genes using E.coli
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Epigenetic's
Condition where several genetic factors & one or more environmental factors are involved.
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Phenotype
Characteristic displayed by an organism
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Genotype
Genetic make-up. E.g- Bb
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Biodiversity
Variety of living organisms in an area
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Species Diversity
Number of different species and abundance of each species in an area
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Genetic diversity
variation of alleles in a species
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Endemism
A species is unique to a single place
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Habitat
place where an organism lives
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Species richness
number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region. No indication of abundance of each species
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Diversity in species
variety shown by individuals of that species
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Niche
The way on organism exploits its environment including its interactions with other living organisms and with the non living environment.
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Adaptation
Features that increase an organisms chance of survival and reproduction- can be behavioural, physiological or anatomical
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Behavioural Adaptation
Way organism acts
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Physiological Adaptation
Process inside an organisms body
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Anatomical Adaptation
Structural features of an organisms body
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Co-Adaptation
When 2 organisms are closely dependant on each other and become closely adapted.
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Natural Selection
Survival of the fittest. Organism with most advantageous characteristics survive
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Evolution
Change in allele frequency in a population over time. For it to occur there must be some genetic variation.
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Species
Group of similar organisms who can reproduce to give fertile offspring
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Speciation
Development of a new species. Occurs when populations of same species become reproductively isolated.
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Reproductive Isolation
Changes in alleles and phenotypes of populations prevent them from successfully breeding together
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Geographical Isolation
Occurs due to physical barrier dividing the population of a species. Populations become genetically distinct.
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Taxonomy
Science of classification, naming and organising organisms into groups based on their similarities and differences.
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Species Concept
Species in same genus can be very similar- similar genotypes and phenotypes but are separate due to not being able to breed to produce fertile offspring.
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Phylogeny
Study of evolutionary history of groups of organisms. Tells us what species are related and how close they are related.
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Molecular Phylogeny
Looks at molecules to see how closely related organisms are. More closely related- more molecules
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Parenchyma (transfer cells)
Type of tissue found in plant. Cells fill spaces between specialised tissues and may have certain functions.
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Plasmodesmata
Channels in cell walls, link the cells and transport substances
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Pits
Thin part of cell wall that transports substances
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Amyloplast
Membrane bound organelle that contains stark. It converts starch into glucose when needed by the cell.
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Vacuole
Compartment surrounded by the membrane called a tonoplast. They keep the cells turgid
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Tonoplast
Controls what enters and leaves the vacuole
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Cell wall- Plant
Made of cellulose- for support
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Starch
Polysaccharide made up of amylose and amylopectin. Main energy source in plants. Cells get energy from glucose, plants store excess glucose as starch. When plant needs more glucose it breaks down starch into glucose.
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Cellulose
Polysaccharide. In cell walls. Has straight glycosidic bonds. Chains of glucose are linked by hydrogen bonds to form microfibrils.
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Microfibrils
80 cellulose chains that are linked by hydrogen bonds to form thread like structures. Strong due to hydrogen bonds. They wind around in a helical structure.
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Secondary Thickening
Growth of a secondary cell wall between normal cell and cell membrane. Occurs once a cell has stopped growing. Thicker an provides more support.
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Schlerenchyma Fibres
Provide support. Made of dead cells that run vertically up the stem. No end walls, wide hollow lumen. Cells thickened with lignin.
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Xylem Vessels
To transport water and minerals and provide support. Long tube structures formed from dead cells. Hollow lumen and no end walls. Walls thickened with lignin for support- rings.
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Autolysis
Cells organelles, cytoplasm and cell surface membrane breakdown. Dead empty cell forms a tube.
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Phloem Tube
Transport organic solutes to where they are needed- translocation. Purely for transport. Contains sieve tubes and companion cells.
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Translocation
Transport of organic solutes to where they are needed in phloem. Main substances- sugars and amino acids
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Sieve Tubes
No nucleus- rely on companion cells. Thin cytoplasm and few organelles
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Companion cells
Do living functions for sieve tubes and itself. Provides energy for active transport of solutes.
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Transpiration Stream
Water is pulled up the xylem channel and the stream of constant water through the plant.
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Cohesion tension theory
Water under tension as if it is pulled up the xylem. Xylem doesn't collapse inwards due to the strength of the cells walls from the lignin.
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Mass transport
To move sugar and solute along the phloem, doesn't rely on diffusion due to it being too slow.
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Cohesion
Hydrogen bonds between water molecules
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Adhesion
Hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the cell wall
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Solvent
Substances can dissolve in water and be transported around in an aqueous environment.
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Digitalis Soup
Mixture of foxgloves concentrations and versions.
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Dropsy
Swelling brought on by heart failure
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Placebo
Dummy substance given to a patient
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Double Blind Randomised Controlled Trial
No one can know what people are taking.
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Binary Fission
Bacteria reproduce assexually
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Seedbank
Stores a variety of seeds from endangered plant species and help to conserve genetic diversity .
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Captive Breeding Programmes
Help endangered species by breeding in a controlled environment to increase numbers.
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Conservation
Helps to protect and manage endangered species.
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Mesosomes
Inwards fold in plasma membrane
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Circular DNA
One coiled strand that is not attached to any histone proteins.
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Cell Surface membrane
made of lipids and proteins and controls what goes in and out of the cell.
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Capsule
Made of secreted slime and protects bacteria from immune system cells
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Plasmid
Loop of DNA that contains genes for antibiotic resistance
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Covered in ribosomes. Folds and processes proteins made at ribosomes. Proteins made are transported through ER to the other parts of the cell.
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Synthesizes and processes lipids and steroids
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Nucleus
Contains nucleolus and chromatin. Controls the activities of the cell. Pores allow substance movement.
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Nucleolus
Inside the nucleus and makes ribosomes.
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Ribosome
Free in cytoplasm or attached to rough ER. Site of protein synthesis
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Golgi Apparatus
Group of flattened membrane bound sacs formed by fusion of vesicles from ER. Processes and packages new lipids and proteins. Modifies vesicles for transport.
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Mitochondrion
Have a double membrane, inner folds form cristae. Site of aerobic respiration. ATP produced.
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Centriole
Hollow cylinders made of ring of 9 protein microtubules. Involved in formation of spindle during nuclear division and in transport in cell cytoplasm.
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Mitosis
Nuclear division plus cytokinesis, and produces two identical daughter
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Meosis
Single cell divides twice to produce four cells containing half the original amount of genetic information. These cells are our sex cells
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Tissue
Group of similar cells that are adapted to work together to carry out a function.
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Organ
Group of different tissues that work together to perform a particular function
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Organ system
Different organs make up an organ system. Each system has a particular function
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Plasmodesmata
a narrow thread of cytoplasm that passes through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells and allows communication between them
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Turgid cell
A swollen and hard cell caused by osmosis. Water is uptaken into the cell and the cell membrane prevents it from bursting
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Magnification
Size of image divided by the real object
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Lignification
A change in the character of a cell wall, by which it becomes harder. It is supposed to be due to an incrustation of lignin
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Process during Meosis where 2 chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material

Back

Crossing Over

Card 3

Front

Replicated copies of a single chromosome that are identical and are created for use in cell division

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Holds sister chromatids together

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Two non identical copies of a chromosomes one from each parent and are used in reproduction cell division.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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