Biology Topic 3 & 4 Keywords

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Independent Assortment
The process of random segregation and assortment of chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis resulting in the production of genetically unique gametes.
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Crossing Over
Process during Meosis where 2 chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material
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Sister Chromatids
Replicated copies of a single chromosome that are identical and are created for use in cell division
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Holds sister chromatids together
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Homologous Chromosones
Two non identical copies of a chromosomes one from each parent and are used in reproduction cell division.
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Location of genes on a chromosome
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Genes with loci on the same chromosome are linked. Stay together during independent assortment.
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Sex Linked
All genes on sex chromosomes are passed on with those that determine sex.
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Male and female sex cells that join at fertilisation to form a zygote. 23 chromosomes.
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Tail of sperm enables swimming powered by energy source of ATP
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Respiring mitochondria produce energy (ATP) for swimming.
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Fuses with sperm cell membrane & releases digestive enzymes to break down zone pellucid.
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Zona Pellucida
Protective glycoprotein layer
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Follicle Cells
From the ovary and forms a protective coating.
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Acrosome Reaction
Acrosome fuses with sperm cell membrane and releases digestive enzymes to digest through follicle cells, zone pellucida and ovum
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Cortical Reaction
Enzymes released from lysosomes thicken zona pellucida so no more sperm can enter.
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Stem Cells
Can produce all cell types
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Can produce all cell types
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Can produce all specialised cells
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From adult body tissue, e.g found in bone marrow
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Section of DNA contains a cluster of structural genes transcribed together, control elements and sometimes a regulatory gene
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Embryonic Stem Cells
From early embryos and can develop into all cell types
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Adult Stem Cells
From adult body tissue, e.g found in bone marrow
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Section of DNA contains a cluster of structural genes transcribed together, control elements and sometimes a regulatory gene
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Lac Operon Model
To express the control of genes using E.coli
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Condition where several genetic factors & one or more environmental factors are involved.
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Characteristic displayed by an organism
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Genetic make-up. E.g- Bb
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Variety of living organisms in an area
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Species Diversity
Number of different species and abundance of each species in an area
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Genetic diversity
variation of alleles in a species
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A species is unique to a single place
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place where an organism lives
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Species richness
number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region. No indication of abundance of each species
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Diversity in species
variety shown by individuals of that species
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The way on organism exploits its environment including its interactions with other living organisms and with the non living environment.
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Features that increase an organisms chance of survival and reproduction- can be behavioural, physiological or anatomical
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Behavioural Adaptation
Way organism acts
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Physiological Adaptation
Process inside an organisms body
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Anatomical Adaptation
Structural features of an organisms body
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When 2 organisms are closely dependant on each other and become closely adapted.
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Natural Selection
Survival of the fittest. Organism with most advantageous characteristics survive
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Change in allele frequency in a population over time. For it to occur there must be some genetic variation.
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Group of similar organisms who can reproduce to give fertile offspring
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Development of a new species. Occurs when populations of same species become reproductively isolated.
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Reproductive Isolation
Changes in alleles and phenotypes of populations prevent them from successfully breeding together
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Geographical Isolation
Occurs due to physical barrier dividing the population of a species. Populations become genetically distinct.
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Science of classification, naming and organising organisms into groups based on their similarities and differences.
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Species Concept
Species in same genus can be very similar- similar genotypes and phenotypes but are separate due to not being able to breed to produce fertile offspring.
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Study of evolutionary history of groups of organisms. Tells us what species are related and how close they are related.
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Molecular Phylogeny
Looks at molecules to see how closely related organisms are. More closely related- more molecules
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Parenchyma (transfer cells)
Type of tissue found in plant. Cells fill spaces between specialised tissues and may have certain functions.
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Channels in cell walls, link the cells and transport substances
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Thin part of cell wall that transports substances
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Membrane bound organelle that contains stark. It converts starch into glucose when needed by the cell.
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Compartment surrounded by the membrane called a tonoplast. They keep the cells turgid
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Controls what enters and leaves the vacuole
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Cell wall- Plant
Made of cellulose- for support
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Polysaccharide made up of amylose and amylopectin. Main energy source in plants. Cells get energy from glucose, plants store excess glucose as starch. When plant needs more glucose it breaks down starch into glucose.
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Polysaccharide. In cell walls. Has straight glycosidic bonds. Chains of glucose are linked by hydrogen bonds to form microfibrils.
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80 cellulose chains that are linked by hydrogen bonds to form thread like structures. Strong due to hydrogen bonds. They wind around in a helical structure.
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Secondary Thickening
Growth of a secondary cell wall between normal cell and cell membrane. Occurs once a cell has stopped growing. Thicker an provides more support.
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Schlerenchyma Fibres
Provide support. Made of dead cells that run vertically up the stem. No end walls, wide hollow lumen. Cells thickened with lignin.
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Xylem Vessels
To transport water and minerals and provide support. Long tube structures formed from dead cells. Hollow lumen and no end walls. Walls thickened with lignin for support- rings.
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Cells organelles, cytoplasm and cell surface membrane breakdown. Dead empty cell forms a tube.
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Phloem Tube
Transport organic solutes to where they are needed- translocation. Purely for transport. Contains sieve tubes and companion cells.
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Transport of organic solutes to where they are needed in phloem. Main substances- sugars and amino acids
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Sieve Tubes
No nucleus- rely on companion cells. Thin cytoplasm and few organelles
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Companion cells
Do living functions for sieve tubes and itself. Provides energy for active transport of solutes.
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Transpiration Stream
Water is pulled up the xylem channel and the stream of constant water through the plant.
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Cohesion tension theory
Water under tension as if it is pulled up the xylem. Xylem doesn't collapse inwards due to the strength of the cells walls from the lignin.
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Mass transport
To move sugar and solute along the phloem, doesn't rely on diffusion due to it being too slow.
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Hydrogen bonds between water molecules
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Hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the cell wall
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Substances can dissolve in water and be transported around in an aqueous environment.
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Digitalis Soup
Mixture of foxgloves concentrations and versions.
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Swelling brought on by heart failure
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Dummy substance given to a patient
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Double Blind Randomised Controlled Trial
No one can know what people are taking.
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Binary Fission
Bacteria reproduce assexually
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Stores a variety of seeds from endangered plant species and help to conserve genetic diversity .
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Captive Breeding Programmes
Help endangered species by breeding in a controlled environment to increase numbers.
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Helps to protect and manage endangered species.
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Inwards fold in plasma membrane
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Circular DNA
One coiled strand that is not attached to any histone proteins.
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Cell Surface membrane
made of lipids and proteins and controls what goes in and out of the cell.
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Made of secreted slime and protects bacteria from immune system cells
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Loop of DNA that contains genes for antibiotic resistance
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Covered in ribosomes. Folds and processes proteins made at ribosomes. Proteins made are transported through ER to the other parts of the cell.
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Synthesizes and processes lipids and steroids
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Contains nucleolus and chromatin. Controls the activities of the cell. Pores allow substance movement.
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Inside the nucleus and makes ribosomes.
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Free in cytoplasm or attached to rough ER. Site of protein synthesis
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Golgi Apparatus
Group of flattened membrane bound sacs formed by fusion of vesicles from ER. Processes and packages new lipids and proteins. Modifies vesicles for transport.
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Have a double membrane, inner folds form cristae. Site of aerobic respiration. ATP produced.
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Hollow cylinders made of ring of 9 protein microtubules. Involved in formation of spindle during nuclear division and in transport in cell cytoplasm.
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Nuclear division plus cytokinesis, and produces two identical daughter
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Single cell divides twice to produce four cells containing half the original amount of genetic information. These cells are our sex cells
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Group of similar cells that are adapted to work together to carry out a function.
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Group of different tissues that work together to perform a particular function
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Organ system
Different organs make up an organ system. Each system has a particular function
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a narrow thread of cytoplasm that passes through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells and allows communication between them
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Turgid cell
A swollen and hard cell caused by osmosis. Water is uptaken into the cell and the cell membrane prevents it from bursting
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Size of image divided by the real object
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A change in the character of a cell wall, by which it becomes harder. It is supposed to be due to an incrustation of lignin
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Process during Meosis where 2 chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material


Crossing Over

Card 3


Replicated copies of a single chromosome that are identical and are created for use in cell division


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Holds sister chromatids together


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Two non identical copies of a chromosomes one from each parent and are used in reproduction cell division.


Preview of the back of card 5
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