Biology- Topic 2 Organisation

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Cells
The basic building blocks of life
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Tissue
Group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function
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Organs
Group of different tissues that work together to perform a function
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Organ System
Group of organs working together to perform a function
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Enzymes
Biological catalysts produced by little things
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Catalyst
A substance that increases the speed of a reaction without being changed or used up in a reaction
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Amylase
Enzyme produced in the salivary gland, small intestine and pancreas- Converts carbohydrates into simple sugars
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Protease
Enzyme produced in the small intestine, pancreas and stomach- Converts proteins into Amino acids
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Lipase
Enzyme produced in the pancreas and small intestine- Converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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Salivary glands
Produce amylase in the saliva
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Pancreas
Produces amylase, protease and lipase and release them into the small intestine
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Large intestine
Where excess water is absorbed from the food
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Liver
Produces bile which neutralises the stomach acids and emulsifies fats
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Small intestine
Produces protease, amylase and lipase and where digested food is absorbed out the digestive system into the blood
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Benedicts Test
Used to test for sugars- A food sample containing sugar will turn brick red
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Iodine Solution
Used to test for starch- If starch is present the solution turns black
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Biuret Test
Used to test for protein- If protein is present the solution goes purple
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Alveoli
Microscopic air sacs that are the site for gas exchange- Oxygen is diffused into the blood, CO2 is diffused into the lungs from the blood
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Double circulatory system
Two circuits joined together
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Deoxygenated blood
Blood without oxygen
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First circulatory circuit process
Right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take in Oxygen, blood then returns to the heart
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Second circulatory circuit process
Left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the organs, blood transfers its oxygen and the deoxygenated blood returns to the heart
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Arteries
Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart (Except pulmonary artery)
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Veins
Carry deoxygenated blood to the heart (Except pulmonary vein)
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Capillary
Involved in exchange of materials at the tissues
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Red blood cells
Biconcave disc that carries oxygen- Contains red pigment called haemoglobin and it doesn't have a nucleus
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White blood cells
Have a nucleus, defend against infection- Some produce antibodies, antitoxins or some engulf the microorganisms in phagocytosis
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Platelets
Help blood to clot, small fragments of cells- Lack of platelets can cause excessive bleeding
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Plasma
Pale liquid that carries everything in the blood such as red + white blood cells, platelets, glucose, amino acids, urea, proteins and more
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Stents
Keep arteries open- Treatment to coronary artery disease where the arteries get blocked up by a build up of fatty material
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Artificial blood
A blood substitute it contains a saline solution which can be used to replace the lost blood in emergency situations
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Communicable disease
A disease that can spread from person to person- Caused by bacteria, viruses...
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Non-Communicable diseases
A disease that cannot be spread- Examples include asthma, cancer and coronary heart disease
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Causes of non-communicable diseases
Excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity, exposure to radiation
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Cancer
Non-Communicable disease caused by uncontrolled cell growth and division
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Benign
A non cancerous type of tumour that stays in one place and isn't usually dangerous
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Malignant
A cancerous tumour that can spread to healthy tissues and are dangerous and fatal
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Epidermal Tissue
Covers the whole plant
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Palisade Mesophyll Tissue
Part of leaf where most photosynthesis happens
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Spongy Mesophyll tissue
Part of leaf that contains big air spaces to allow the diffusion of gases in and out of the cells
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Xylem
Tube that takes water up
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Phloem
Tube that transports food
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Stomata
Little holes that let CO2 diffuse directly into the leaf
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Waxy cuticle
Biological mechanism designed to reduce water loss by evaporation
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Transpiration
Affected by light intensity, temperature, air flow and humidity, it is the loss of water from a plant
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Card 2

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Group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function

Back

Tissue

Card 3

Front

Group of different tissues that work together to perform a function

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Group of organs working together to perform a function

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Biological catalysts produced by little things

Back

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