biology topic 1

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what is the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?
the prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus whereas the eukaryotic cell does.
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what is the purpose of a nucleus
to contain all of the DNA of a cell as well as controlling its activity
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what is the purpose of cytoplasm
this is where all of the chemical reactions occur
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what is the purpose of the cell membrane
this controls what goes in and out of a cell
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what is the purpose of mitochondria
to carry out aerobic respiration for energy
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what is the purpose of ribosomes
to produce proteins for growth and repairs
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what three extra organelles do plants have
vacuoles, chloroplasts and cell walls
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where is the DNA stored in a prokaryotic cell
within the cytoplasm of the cell, in strands and rings
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what are the small rings of DNA found in prokaryotic cells called
plasmids
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which has a higher resolution - a light microscope or an electron microscope
an electron microscope
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how do you work out magnification
image size / real size
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what is differentiation
cells developing to fit a purpose
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give three examples of specialised cells
sperm cells, root hair cells, phloem cells, xylem cells, muscle cells
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how is a sperm cell adapted to its purpose
streamlined head, long tail
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how are muscle cells adapted for their purpose
they are long and contain lots of mitochondria for energy when moving
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how many chromosomes does each average body cell have
46
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what is a chromosome
a string coil of DNA that forms a structure
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what is mitosis and what is it used for
mitosis is the splitting of cells to form identical cells. it can be used to repair the body as well as let it grow.
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explain the process of mitosis
the organelles begin to duplicate, then the dna - forming x chromosomes, then they line up in the centre, cell fibres pull them apart, then new nuclei are formed around the two sets of chromosomes, then the cytoplasm and cell membrane divide.
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when a cell splits into two identical cells, what are they called
daughter cells
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how do prokaryotic cells replicate
binary fission
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explain the process of binary fission
the DNA replicates, the cell gets bigger, the DNA moves to opposite sides of the cell and then the cell splits into daughter cells
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how do you sterilise equipment for the bacteria growth experiment
the incoulating loop has to be sterilised using heat from a fire
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what temperature can you heat the petri dish to during the bacteria growth experiment
25 degrees
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why can you not heat the petri dish in the bacteria growth experiment above 25 degrees
if heated higher then dangerous pathogens could emerge and cause illness
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how can you compare the effectiveness of different antibiotics
by measuring the diameters of different zones of inhibition around the antibiotic
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what is an area of killed bacteria called during the 'culturing microorganism' experiment
zone of inhibition
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what is the other name for undifferentiated cells
stem cells
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where can stem cells be found in animals
in bone marrow (in adults) or in embryos
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what can stem cells be used for
they can be used to create specific new cells that your body needs as well as used to grow new parts for your body
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what is the benefit of using stem cells to replace a part of an individual
they will have the same DNA as what would be found in the new part so the body would not reject it
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give reason as to why some people disagree with stem cell research
they disagree with the exploitation of embryos
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where are stem cells found in plants
in the meristems
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what is diffusion
the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration down a gradient. through a partially permeable membrane
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diffusion can only happen in liquids and gases - why
the particles have to be able to move and are unable to in a solid
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when would diffusion occur more quickly
if there was a rise in temperature or a large difference in the concentration of particles
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give an example of where diffusion might occur in a human
in the alveoli or the intestines through villi
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why do the cell membranes help with diffusion
they are only partially permeable so that larger substances (such as lipids) cannot get through
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what is osmosis
the movement of water molecules through a partially permeable membrane down a concentration gradient
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what is the process called where substances move against the concentration gradient
active transport
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where does the energy from active transport come from
respiration
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where does active transport occur in plants
root hair cells
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where does active transport occur in animals
in the intestines when the blood has a higher concentration of essential substances than what is in the gut (if someone hadn't eaten in a while)
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would a larger organism have a larger or smaller surface area to volume ratio
smaller
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what adaptations do alveoli have to allow better diffusion
they have a large surface area, they have a blood supply close to them, they have a thin wall of cells surrounding them and it is warm there
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what are the small hair-like structures called in your intestines
villi
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where does co2 enter the leaf for photosynthesis to occur
stomata
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what diffuses out of the stomata after photosynthesis
water and oxygen
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what controls the size of the stomata
guard cells
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what are the gas exchange surface in fish
the gills
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what adaptations do fish gills have for diffusion
they have a large surface area due to the layers of cells inside called lamellae and a close by blood supply.
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Card 2

Front

what is the purpose of a nucleus

Back

to contain all of the DNA of a cell as well as controlling its activity

Card 3

Front

what is the purpose of cytoplasm

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the purpose of the cell membrane

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the purpose of mitochondria

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Preview of the front of card 5
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