BIOLOGY TOPIC 1

  • Created by: Lxbna
  • Created on: 03-12-17 15:30
What are Prokaryotes? + Name an example
Smaller and simple structured cells (Single celled organisms), bacteria etc.
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What are Eukaryotes? + Name two example
Complex structured cells (Organisms made out of Eukaryotic cells), Animal and Plant cells
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Name all the features of an Animal cell
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes
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What features do plant cells include that animal cells don't?
Cell Wall, Permanent Vacuole and Chloroplast
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What is the function of a Nucleus?
contains GENETIC MATERIAL that CONTROLS the ACTIVITIES of the cell
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What is the function of Cytoplasm?
GEL LIKE SUBSTANCE where most CHEMICAL REACTIONS occur (contains ENZYMES that control chemical reactions)
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What is the function of the Cell Membrane?
HOLDS CELL TOGETHER and CONTROLS what goes IN or OUT
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What is the function of the Mitochondria?
Where most AEROBIC RESPIRATION REACTIONS OCCUR (RESPIRATION transfers ENERGY which cell requires to function)
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What is the function of the Ribosomes?
PROTEINSYTHESIS (when proteins are made) occurs here
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What is the function of the Cell Wall?
RIGID STRUCTURE made of CELLULOSE (SUPPORTS and STRENGTHENS cell)
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What is the function of the Permanent Vacuole?
Contains CELL SAP (Weak SUGAR + SALT solution)
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Which part of the animal cell controls its activity?
Nucleus
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Where do most chemical reactions take place in a cell?
Cytoplasm
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What are mitochondria needed for in a cell?
Aerobic respiration transfers energy required for a cell to work.
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What is a plasmid?
Small rings of DNA in a bacterial cell
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What are the main features of a light microscope?
USES LIGHT to work, can identify INDIVIDUAL CELLS, identifies LARGE SUBCELLULAR STRUCTURES (NUCLEI), and they are CHEAPER
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What are the main features of a electron microscope?
USES ELECTRONS to work, has a HIGHER MAGNIFICATION, has a higher RESOLUTION, can identify SMALLER THINGS IN DETAIL, identifies INTERNAL STRUCTURES (ribosomes, plasmids etc)
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What is the equations linking magnification, image size and actual size?
MAGNIFICATION = IMAGE SIZE / REAL SIZE
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How would you convert between metres, cm, mm, μm and nm?
CM to MM (x10), MM to μM (x100), μM to NM (x100) - NM to μM (÷ 100), μM to MM (÷ 100), MM to CM (÷ 10)
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PRACTICAL; Using a light microscope (pt 1)
1.Add a drop of water to the middle of the clean slide, 2.Cut up an onion and separate it out into layers. Use tweezers to peel off the epidermal tissue from the bottom of one of the layers. 3.Use tweezers to place epidermal tissue on water of slide
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PRACTICAL; Using a light microscope (pt 2)
4 Add a drop of iodine solution (which is a stain; used to highlight objects in a cell), 5. place a cover slip of thin transparent plastic or glass on top. ( stand the cover upright on the slide, next to water droplet, carefully tilt and lower)
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How to Observe specimen (PRACTICAL)
1. start by clipping the slide you've prepared onto stage. 2. Select lowest powered objective lens 3. Use coarse adjustment knob to move up the stage to just below the lens.
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Define Cell Differentiation and Specialisation
Cell differentiation is the process of which a cell changes to become specialised. - Specialisation is the term given to specialised cells; cells which preform a specific function.
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Name five examples of Specialisation
SPERM CELLS (in animals) - specialised for reproduction NERVE CELLS (in animals) - rapid signalling MUSCLE CELLS (in animals) ROOT HAIR CELLS (in plants) PHLOEM + XYLEM CELLS (in plants)
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Define Mitosis
Mitosis is when a cell reproduces itself by splitting to form two identical offspring.
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Explain what happens during the cell cycle (pt 1) (GROWTH AND REPLICATION)
In a cell thats not dividing, the DNA is all spread out in LONG STRINGS. Before it divides the cell GROWS and INCREASES AMOUNT OF SUBCELLULAR STRUCTURES. The cell then DUPLICATES its DNA, so there is one copy for each cell.
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Explain what happens during the cell cycle (pt 2) (GROWTH AND REPLICATION)
The DNA forms (X SHAPED) CHROMOSOMES. Each 'ARM' of the chromosome is an Exact duplicate of each other.
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Explain what happens during the cell cycle (pt 1) (MITOSIS)
The CHROMOSOMES line up at the CENTRE of the cell and CELL FIBRES PULL THEM APART. The TWO ARMS of each chromosome go to OPPOSITE ENDS of the cell. MEMBRANES FORM around each of the sets of CHROMOSOMES, which become the NUCLEUS of the new cells.
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Explain what happens during the cell cycle (pt 2) (MITOSIS)
The CYTOPLASM and CELL MEMBRANE divide
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Give two uses of mitosis in multicellular animals.
Growth + Development or Replacing faulty cells.
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How many times does a body cell divide during mitosis?
1
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What is Binary Fission?
Prokaryotic Cell replication
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Explain what happens during prokaryotic cell replication?
The circular DNA and plasmid(s) replicate. The cells gets BIGGER and the CIRCULAR DNA strands move to the OPPOSITE ends of the cell. The CYTOPLASM begins to divide and new cell walls FORM. The CYTOPLASM DIVIDES and two new daughter cells are produced
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In what conditions can bacteria replicate? and what happens if otherwise?
Warm enviroment and lots of nutrients, If otherwise the cells will stop dividing and will eventually begin to die.
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What three steps do you follow to calculate Mean division time?
Make sure both times are in the same units, Divide the total time that the bacteria are producing cells by the mean division time. Multiply 2 by itself for the number of cell divisions to find the number of cells.
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PRACTICAL; How do you prepare an Agar Plate?
Hot agar jelly is poured into a petri dish. When the jelly is cooled and set an, inoculating loop is used to transfer microganisms to the culture mediums, which the microorganisms will start to multiply
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PRACTICAL; What is an alternative for an Agar Plate?
A stertile dropping pipette and spreader can be used to get an even covering of bacteria, which the microorganisms will start to multiply
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PRACTICAL; Investigating the effect of antibiotics on bacterial growth
1. Place paper discs soaked in different types (or concentration) of antibiotics on an agar plate. 2. The antibiotics should diffuse into the agar jelly (Antibiotic resistant bacteria should continue to grow on the agar around the disc)
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PRACTICAL; Investigating the effect of antibiotics on bacterial growth (pt) 2
(- but non restraints will die). A clear are will be left where the bacteria has died - inhibition zone. 3 Ensure to use a control. (Paper disc that has not been soaked in an antibiotic but in sterile water.) 4. Leave the plate for 48 hours at 25 dg
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PRACTICAL; Investigating the effect of antibiotics on bacterial growth (pt) 3
5. The more effective the antibiotic against the bacteria, the larger the inhibition zone will be.
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PRACTICAL; preparing an uncontaminated culture (pt 1)
The petri dishes and culture medium must be sterilised before use (eg, by heating to a high temp) to kill unwanted micro organisms. If an inoculating loop is used to transfer bacteria to the culture medium, it should be sterilised first
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Card 2

Front

What are Eukaryotes? + Name two example

Back

Complex structured cells (Organisms made out of Eukaryotic cells), Animal and Plant cells

Card 3

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Name all the features of an Animal cell

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What features do plant cells include that animal cells don't?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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What is the function of a Nucleus?

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