Biology - Science Yearly

What is a chromosome?
A tiny structure in the nucleus of the cell. They contain the DNA that carries the genetic information.
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What is a phenotype?
Sum of the physical and mental characteristics of an organism at a particular time.
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What is a genotype?
Information inherited fro the parents and contained in the DNA.
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What does recessive mean?
Describes a gene that is present in an organism but may not be evident in its phenotype.
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What is a mutation?
A mutation is a change to the DNA sequence at the gene or chromosome level.
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What is the process of natural selection?
Process by which a species gives rise to a new species that has characteristics that make them better adapted for survival in a particular environment.
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What are the organs related to human reproduction?
Male - testicles, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, Cowper's gland, penis. Female - ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina
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What are chromosomes responsible for?
The transferring of inherited information.
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How many chromosomes do humans have?
46 (23 pairs)
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What 3 things are DNA made up of?
1. Sugar phosphate backbone 2. Hydrogen bond 3. Bases
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How do the bases in DNA pair up?
A + T and C + G
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What is Mitosis?
Cell division for growth, repair and replacement.
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What is Meiosis?
Cell division for the production of sex cells.
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What is an advantage of mutation?
Some species depend on them for survival. e.g. pesticides
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What is a disadvantage of mutation?
Some mutations result in uncontrolled cell division, which can result in cancerous tumours..
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What is Klinefelter syndrome (XXY Syndrome)?
A chromosome disorder that affects males. The affected male has an additional X chromosome causing fertility.
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What is the theory of evolution?
That every organism on Earth is a descendent of those that lived millions of years ago.
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What is an example of evidence for evolution?
The fossil record
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What is the law of superposition?
Older rocks are usually found at the bottom and younger layers at the top.
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How do sedimentary rocks form?
They form when broken pieces of rock (sediment) are layered on top of each other and a process called sedimentation takes place.
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What is biotechnology?
Using living things to create products or to do tasks for human beings.
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What is an example of a biotechnology?
DNA Fingerprinting
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What are 2 benefits of Cloning?
Disease treatments + Medicines
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What are 2 problems with Cloning?
Unethical + Creation of mutations
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Card 2


What is a phenotype?


Sum of the physical and mental characteristics of an organism at a particular time.

Card 3


What is a genotype?


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Card 4


What does recessive mean?


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Card 5


What is a mutation?


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