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What is the function of cell surface (plasma) membrane?
Regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell. It also has receptor molecules on it, which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones
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What is the function of a chloroplast?
The site where photosynthesis takes place. Some parts happen in the grana and others in the stroma
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What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
It processes and packages new lipids and proteins. It also makes lysosomes
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What is the function of the golgi vesicle?
It stores lipids and proteins made by the golgi apparatus and transports them out of the cell
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What is the function of ribosomes?
The site where proteins are made
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What is the function of RER?
Folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosmes
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What is the function of SER?
Synthesises and processes lipids
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What is the function of the cell vacuole?
Helps to maintain pressure inside the cell and keep the cell rigid. This stops plants wilting. Also involved in the isolation of unwanted chemicals inside the cell
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What is active immunity?
This is the type of immunity you get when your immune system makes its own antibodies after being stimulated by an antigen.
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What is passive immunity?
This is the type of immunity you get from being given antibodies made by a different organism-your immune system does not produce any antibodies of its own.
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What are the main features of active immunity?
-Requires exposure to antigen -It takes a while for protection to develop - Memory cells are produced - Protection is long term
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What are the main features of passive immunity?
-Does not require exposure to antigen - Protection is immediate - Memory cells are not produced -Protection is short term because the antibodies given are broken down
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What is species richness?
It is a measure of the number of different species in a community
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What is pulmonary tuberculosis?
The immune system cells build a wall around the bacteria in the lungs. This forms tubercles. Infected tissue within the tubercles dies and the gaseous exchange surface is damaged so tidal volume is decreased
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Describe the common symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis?
A persistent cough/Coughing up blood and mucus/chest pains/shortness of breath/fatigue
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What is fibrosis?
Fibrosis is the formation of scar tissue in the lungs. This can be the result of exposure to substances like dust. Scar tissue is thicker + less elastic than normal lung tissue. Lungs are less able to expand and cant hold as much air as normal.
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What are the symptoms of fibrosis?
Shortness of breath/dry cough/chest pain/fatigue/weakness
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What is asthma?
A respiratory condition where the airways become inflamed and iritated. can be caused by pollen and dust. The smooth muscle lining the bronchioles contracts and a large amount of mucus is produced. Causes constriction of airways. Air flow is reduced
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What are the symptoms of asthma?
wheezing/a tight chest/shortness of breath
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What is emphysema?
A lung disease caused by smoking. Foreign particles become trapped in the alveoli. This causes inflammation which attracts phagocytes. Phagocytes produce an enzyme that breaks down elastin. loss of elastin-alveoli cant recoil to expel air aswell.
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What are the symptoms of emphysema?
Shortness of breath/wheezing
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Explain why the plasma membrane can be described as having a fluid mosaic structure?
The membrane is described as fluid because the phospholipids are constantly moving. It is described as mosaic because the proteins are scattered throughout the membrane like tiles in a mosaic.
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What effect does cholesterol have on the cell membrane?
Cholesterol gives the membrane stability
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What are monoclonal antibodies?
antibodies produced from a single group of identical b cells. This means they are all identical in structure
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Card 2

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What is the function of a chloroplast?

Back

The site where photosynthesis takes place. Some parts happen in the grana and others in the stroma

Card 3

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What is the function of the golgi apparatus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What is the function of the golgi vesicle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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What is the function of ribosomes?

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