Biology progress test 1

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Define Continuous Variation
A change that happens gradually - for example foot length. It can be caused by environmental factors or genes
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Define Discontinuous Variation
Differences in one feature That only have a few options. You either have the gene or you don't - for example blood type
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Define Homeostasis
It is the maintenance of a constant internal enviroment
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Name 3 things our body has to regulate
Body temp, Blood sugar levels and Water levels
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Explain what happens when we get too hot
- Sweat gland release sweat to be evapourated in order to transport heat energy away from your skin - Vasodilation - Hair on skin : hair muscles relax and hairs lie flat so heat can escape
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Explain when we get too cold
- Erect hair traps air (insulates) - vasoconstriction -body shivers generating heat energy
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define vasoconstriction and vasodilation
vasodilation -blood vessels expand allowing more blood to flowto the skin surface to be cooled by the environment around us vasoconstriction - blood vessels contract so less blood flows to the surface and less heat is lost
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Where is a thermo receptor situated and what does it do
They are in the skin and the detect changes in the external temp and pass this information on to the hypothalamus
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what is the Hypothalamus
It is the thermoregulatory and the processing centre of the Brain
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What happens to enzymes if the temperature gets over 37 degrees
They denaturalise and do not work properly
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What happens to enzymes if the temperature falls under 37 degrees
They die
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What do you die from if you are too hot
HypErthermia
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What do you die from if you are too cold
HypOthermia
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What ways do we lose water
breathing, sweating, in urine and in faeces
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What are your water levels controlled and monitored by
The hypothalamus in the brain
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What does the hormone ADH stand for?
antidiuretic hormone
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what does ADH controll
The concentration of urine (the more water that needs to go (i.e too much) the less ADH is needed
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Explain what happens when you have too little water
1) Detected by hypothalamus (2 more ADH released from the pituitary gland in the brain 3) kidneys absorb less water so less is lost in urine 4) blood water levels are back to normal - URINE IS MORE CONCENTRATED
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Explain when you have too much water
1) Detected by hypothalamus (2 less ADH released from the pituitary gland in the brain 3) kidneys absorb more water so more is lost in urine 4) blood water levels are back to normal - URINE IS MORE DILUTE
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What is glucose
sugar used in respiration and in all of your cells to make energy
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What is Glycogen
a storage substance made of glucose and stored in the liver
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What is Insulin
a hormone that lets glucose into cells and changes glucose into glycogen in the liver. Insulin is made in the pancreas
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What is glucagon
a hormone (a type of insulin) that turns Glycogen BACK INTO glucose. it is produced by the pancreas
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What happens when you have too little glucose in your blood?
causes the liver to release more glucose into blood as glucagon turns glycogen (storage substance of glucose in the liver) back into glucose. Now you have a normal blood glucose levelThe Pancreas releases glucagon from its alpha cells. This
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What happens when you have too much glucose in your blood
The Pancreas releases insulin from its beta cells and the insulin lets the fat cells take in glucose from the blood. Blood glucose levels are returned to normal
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what does the pancreas control
Blood sugar levels
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Differences in one feature That only have a few options. You either have the gene or you don't - for example blood type

Back

Define Discontinuous Variation

Card 3

Front

It is the maintenance of a constant internal enviroment

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Body temp, Blood sugar levels and Water levels

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

- Sweat gland release sweat to be evapourated in order to transport heat energy away from your skin - Vasodilation - Hair on skin : hair muscles relax and hairs lie flat so heat can escape

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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