Biology paper one

Name five subcellular structures that both plant and animal cells have
Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell membrane Mitochondria Ribosomes
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What three things do plant cells have that animal cells dont ?
Cell wall Permanent vacuole Chloroplasts
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Where is the genetic material found in a animal cell?
The nucleus
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Where is the genetic material found in bacterial cells ?
The cytoplasm
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What type of organisms are bacteria ?
Prokaryotes
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What gives a higher resolution a light microscope or an electron microscope ?
Electron microscope
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What is cell differentiation?
The process in which a cell becomes specialised for its job
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Give three ways that sperm cell is adapted for swimming to an egg cell
Streamline head to help it swim , Lots of mitochondria to give it the energy to swim , Enzymes in the head to digest through the egg cell membrane
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Why is a nerve cell shaped the way it is ?
To connect to other nerve cells to form a network
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What are chromosomes?
Coiled up lengths of DNA molecules
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What is the cell cycle?
The process in which body cells in multicellular organisms divide to produce new cells
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What is mitosis used for by multicellular organisms?
To grow or replace cells that have been damaged
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What is the name of the process by which bacteria divide?
Binary fission
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What is the maximum temperature that microorganisms should be grown at in a school lab ?
25 celsius , if its any higher harmful pathogens are more likely to grow
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Give a way embryonic stem cells could be used to cure diseases
Replace faulty cells for diseases like diabetes
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What is diffusion ?
The spreading out of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area lower concentration
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Name three substances that can diffuse through cell membranes and two that cant
Oxygen Glucose Amino acids can diffuse through the membrane . Starch and proteins cant
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What type of molecules move by osmosis ?
Water molecules
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What is a tissue?
A group of cells that work together to complete a particular function
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Explain what is meant by the term organ system
A group of organs working together to perform a particular function
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Why can enzymes be described as biological catalysts ?
Because they increase reactions in the bidy
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Why do enzymes only usually catalyse one reaction ?
Because the substrate fits into a particular active site
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What does it mean when an enzyme has been denatured ?
The shape of the enzyme has changed so the substrate wont fit any more
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List the three places where amylase is made in the human body
Salivary glands Small intestine Pancreas
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What is the role of lipases ?
To convert lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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Where is bile stored?
Gall bladder
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Name the solution that you would use to test for the presence of lipids in a food sample
Sudan III stain solution
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Name the tubes that split off the trachea
Bronchi
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Explain the role alveoli play in gas exchange
They actually carry out the gas exchange
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Why is circulatory system described as a double circulatory system
Bevause it had two circuits joined together
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Why does the heart have valves?
To stop the blood flowing backwards
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Name the four chambers of the heart
Right atrium Left atrium Right ventricle Left ventricle
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How is the resting heart rate controlled in a healthy heart?
Controlled by a group of cells in the right strium wall that act as a pacemaker
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How are arteries adapted to carry blood away from the heart?
They layers of thick muscle to make them strong and elastic fibres to make them stretch
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Why do red blood cells not have a nucleus ?
For more room to carry oxygen
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What is meant by a non communicable disease?
Diseases that cannot spread between people or between animals
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Which type of tumor is cancerous?
Malignant
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List the tissure that make up a leaf
Epidermal tissue , palisade mesophyll tissue, spongy mesophyll tissue
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What is the function of phloem?
To transport food substances
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What is transpiration?
Loss of water from a plant
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Name the type of cell that helps open and close stomata
Guard cells
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how can bacteria make us feel ill?
producing toxins that damage your cells
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Give one way that fungi can cause disease
the hyphae can grow and penetrate the skin causing diseases
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how does tobacco mosaic virus affect a plants growth
the leaves become discoloured so photosynthesis can't be carried out affecting photosynthesis
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How are mosquitoes involved in the spread of malaria?
they pick up the posits from an infected animal then every time it feeds on something else it infects it
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what are symptoms of gonorrhoea?
pain when urinating , yellow or green discharge from the vagina or penis
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how can destroying vectors hep to prevent disease ?
killing the organisms that spread disease will prevent it being passed on
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what does the stomach produce that can kill pathogens?
hydrochloric acid
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Give three ways that white blood cells defend against pathogens
consuming them, producing antibodies , producing antitoxins
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Give one pro and one con of vaccination
can prevent big outbreaks of disease , possibility of a bad reaction
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why is it difficult to develop drugs that kill viruses without also damaging body tissues?
because viruses reproduce using your body cells
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Which plant does the painkiller aspirin originate from?
Willow
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What two things are drugs tested on in preclinical testing?
human cells and tissues
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What is meant by a drugs toxicity ?
how harmful it is
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what is a monoclonal antibody?
identical antibodies
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Where are the B lymphocytes taken from when making monoclonal antibodies?
from a mouse
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Why might a fluorescent dye be added to a monoclonal antibody?
to detect the monoclonal antibodies because the antibodies bind to the dye
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Why aren't monoclonal antibodies used as drugs as much as scientists hoped they would be?
they have a lot of side effects
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what do plants us magnesium ions for?
for making chlorophyll
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Give one way of identifying a plant disease
stunted growth , spots on leaves , patches of decay , discolouration , malformed stems or leaves
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Give one mechanical defence that a plant may have to defend itself
thorns or hairs to stop animals from touching and eating them
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Where in a plant cell does photosynthesis take place?
chloroplasts
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How is energy transferred to a plant from its environment for photosynthesis?
in an endothermic reaction
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What is an endothermic reaction?
energy is transferred from the environment in the process
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What is the work equation for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide + water = glucose + oxygen
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What type of molecule is formed from combining glucose molecules with nitrate ions?
amino acids
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why do plants store glucose as starch
because starch is insoluble
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What is meant by a limiting factor of photosynthesis?
stopping from photosynthesis happening any faster
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What effect would low carbon dioxide concentration have on the rate of photosynthesis?
slows the rate of photosynthesis down
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What effect would a temperature above 45 celsius have on the rate of photosynthesis?
the enzymes it needs for photosynthesis will be damaged so no photosynthesis will occur
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In the inverse square law how are light intensity and distance linked?
as distance increases the light intensity decreases this means there inversely proportional
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Give one way that the level of carbon dioxide can be increased in a greenhouse
using a paraffin heater as when it burns it makes carbon dioxide
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what is respiration?
the process of transferring energy from glucose
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what is an exothermic reaction?
a reaction that transfers energy to the environment
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Name the products of aerobic respiration
carbon dioxide , water
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What is produced by anaerobic respiration in muscle cells?
lactic acid
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in yeast cells?
glucose = ethanol + carbon dioxide
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What three things do plant cells have that animal cells dont ?

Back

Cell wall Permanent vacuole Chloroplasts

Card 3

Front

Where is the genetic material found in a animal cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where is the genetic material found in bacterial cells ?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What type of organisms are bacteria ?

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