Biology Paper 2 (part 2)

What is the process of blood circulation?
Blood enters the atria. The atria contracts, forcing blood into the ventricles. The ventricles contracts, forcing blood into the arteries. Finally, blood flows through the arteries to the organs and returns to the heart through the veins.
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What is cellular respiration?
A process that releases energy from glucose for use in cellular activities.
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What is the main type of cellular respiration?
Aerobic respiration, which uses oxygen.
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What is aerobic respiration?
A series of chemical reactions that take place, mostly inside mitochondria in the cell.
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What is the formula for aerobic respiration?
glucose+oxygen=carbon dioxide+water
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List some uses of energy in animals?
To maintain a steady body temperature in colder temperatures (in birds and mammals) , To enable muscle contraction and to build larger molecules from smaller ones.
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When does anaerobic respiration take place?
Takes place when there is not enough oxygen, or aerobic respiration is not possible.
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What are the differences in aerobic respiration?
Aerobic respiration: requires oxygen, releases a lot of energy, the glucose is broken down completely and it occurs mostly in mitochondria.
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What are the differences in anaerobic respiration?
Anaerobic respiration: does not require oxygen, releases much less energy, the glucose is only partly broken down to lactic acid and it does not occur in mitochondria.
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What is the formula for a cardiac output?
stroke volume x heart rate.
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What happens when you exercise?
Your stroke volume increases and your heart rate increases.
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Why does your stroke volume increase when you exercise?
Because the heart muscle pumps more strongly.
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How can your heart rate be measured?
By taking your pulse at the wrist.
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What is your heart rate usually measured in?
It is usually measured as beats per minute (BPM)
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What happens to your heart during exercise?
During exercise, muscle cells are respiring faster. This means that they need more oxygen and glucose, and release more carbon dioxide. A faster heart rate means that blood is pumped faster around the body.
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What are ecosystems?
Ecosystems are organized into different levels. At the level of communities, both abiotic and biotic factors can have an effect.
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What does abiotic mean?
non-living
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What does biotic mean?
living
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What is an organism?
A single living individual.
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What does population mean?
All the organisms of the same species in an area.
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What is a community?
All the populations in an area.
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Are all organisms in an ecosystem dependent?
Yes.
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How can changes in non-living factors be measured?
Using an oxygen meter, thermometer or a rainfall gauge.
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Are oxygen levels different in unpolluted and polluted water?
Yes. In unpolluted water, oxygen levels in water are high whereas in polluted water, the oxygen levels are low.
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What is a pollutant?
Energy or a chemical substance that has a harmful effect on living organisms.
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Why do animals compete with each other?
they compete for food, mates for reproduction and for territory.
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Give 2 examples of interdependence where the survival of one species is closely linked with another species?
Parasitism and mutualism.
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What is the equation used to work out the number of organisms in the whole area?
mean number of organisms in one quadrat x total area (m2)/ area of one quadrant (m2)
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When are changes in factors recorded?
They are recorded at each quadrat position. This makes it easier to link a change in distribution with a change in physical factor.
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Which 2 things can you use to investigate the relationship between organisms and their environment in the field.
Quadrats and belt transects.
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What is biodiversity?
Biodiversity is the variety of living organisms in an area.
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What is reforestation?
Replanting forests where they have been destroyed, for example to create farmland.
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What does the carbon cycle show?
It shows how the element carbon passes between the environment and living organisms.
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What is carbon as a gas when it is in the air?
Part of carbon dioxide.
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Why is the carbon cycle important?
because it recycles carbon dioxide released in respiration to be taken in by plants in photosynthesis, to make organic molecules in living organisms.
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What does the water cycle describes?
It describes how water moves between different parts of our planets.
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What is the word used where someone can produce drinking water from salty water ?
Desalination.
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What do plants need to grow well?
nitrates
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How do plants get nitrates?
They get them from the nitrogen cycle and from many other ways.
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What does the nitrogen cycle show?
It shows how the element nitrogen moves between living organisms and the environment.
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What does crop rotation mean and what does it improve?
Crop rotation means growing different crops each year, on a rotation basis. This improves soil fertility.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is cellular respiration?

Back

A process that releases energy from glucose for use in cellular activities.

Card 3

Front

What is the main type of cellular respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is aerobic respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the formula for aerobic respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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