# Biology Paper 2 Information

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What is a categoric variable?

A variable that is best described by a label

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Give some examples of categoric variables

Eye colour- brown, blue, green eyes; Pets-dogs,cats,rabbits

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What is a continuous variable?

A variable that we can measure, so its value is a number

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Give some examples of continuous data

Temperature, light intensity, Flow rate

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What sort of data should you try and collect when carrying out an investigation?

Continuous

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What is a reproducible experiment?

When the investigation is repeated by a different person or using different equipment and the same results are obtained

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What is a repeatable experiment?

When the original experimenter repeats the investigation using the same equipment and gets the same results

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What is a valid investigation?

An investigation that is a suitable procedure to answer the question being asked

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How can you ensure your data is valid?

Try and control as many variables as possible

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What is an independent variable?

The one you change

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What is a dependent variable?

The one you measure as a result of the independent variable

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If a pattern is seen in data, what could you say about the independent and dependent variable?

One changing has caused the other to change OR the two are related but one was not necessarily the cause of the other

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What must you do when stating observations in an experiment?

Observe carefully which variables are likely to have an effect

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What is a hypothesis?

An idea based on an observation that has science behind it to explain it

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What is a prediction?

A statement predicting what will happen in the future, based on an observation, experience or hypothesis

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What is a fair test?

When the independent variable is the only variable that affects the dependent variable. All other variables are controlled

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Why is it difficult to control variables in the environment of animals and plants?

The variables are constantly changing

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Increasing the sample size increases the .......... of the results

Validity

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Why do we sometimes need a control group?

To ensure you are measuring the variable you intend to measure

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What is accuracy?

A result that is judged to be close to the true value

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How can you work out if the data you have collected is accurate?

Estimate a theoretical value first; On a graph, draw a line of best fit and see how close the results are to it; Repeat the experiment with different instruments and see if you get the same reading

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What is precision?

The spread of results around the mean value

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How do you get precise data?

Repeat the experiment multiple times, repeat the experiment in the same way each time; Use measuring equipment that has appropriate scale divisions for the experiment- the smaller the better resolution

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What is the resolution of an instrument?

The smallest change in a value that can be detected

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Give examples of random errors

Human error; faulty technique, faulty equipment

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Give examples of systematic errors

The environment, the observation techniques, the instruments

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What sort of error affects the whole experiment as the same error is made for every repeat?

Systematic

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What error only affects one piece of data?

Random

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What is an anomaly?

A piece of data that is clearly out of line with the others

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When should anomalies be ignored?

If they are due to a random error

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What should you do if you identify an anomaly whilst doing the investigation?

Repeat that part of the experiment

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What do you do if you find an anomaly after the investigation?

The anomaly should be discarded

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What is the range of a set of data?

The difference between the maximum and the minimum values

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What must you always do if asked for the range?

Include the actual values and the units

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How do you work out the mean of some data?

Add it all up and divide by the number of pieces of data

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When should you use a bar chart?

If you have a categoric independent variable and a continuous dependent variable

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When should you use a line graph?

If you have a continuous independent and dependent variable

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How can you see on a graph if a point is an anomaly?

If it is a significant distance away from the normal variation

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What are the two types of lines of best fit?

Straight line and curved line

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What can help you on a graph to identify anomalies?

Line of best fit

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What is a linear relationship?

When you can confidently draw a straight line of best fit, positive or negative

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How is a directly proportional relationship shown on a graph?

A positive straight line that goes through the origin (line of best fit)

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If you have a positive relationship, does that mean the two variables are linked?

Not necessarily that one caused the other but there could be a casual link

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In your conclusion, can you go further than the evidence presented in the graph?

No - only use evidence given

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At the end of an investigation, what three possible things can happen to the hypothesis?

It can be supported, it can be rejected, it could lead to another hypothesis

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If you have spotted a pattern, you must check it goes beyond the range of values given. How do you do that?

Further tests

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How can you check the reproducability of your work?

Look at similar work on the internet or from others in the class; Get someone else to redo your experiment; Repeat using a different method and see if you get the same results

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Give some examples of categoric variables

#### Back

Eye colour- brown, blue, green eyes; Pets-dogs,cats,rabbits

### Card 3

#### Front

What is a continuous variable?

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

Give some examples of continuous data

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

What sort of data should you try and collect when carrying out an investigation?

#### Back

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