Biology Paper 2 PART 1

What is the process of photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is the process that plants and algae use to make their own food.
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Why are plants called producers?
They are called producers because they produce their own food.
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What are photosynthetic organisms?
They are the main producers of food and therefore biomass.
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What is biomass?
Biomass is the mass of living material at a particular stage in a food chain.
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What is the photosynthesis equation?
carbon dioxide + water = glucose + oxygen.
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What is chlorophyll?
A green substance found in the chloroplasts of some plants.
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Where is energy took from in 'endothermic' reactions?
The energy is took from the surroundings.
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What are the limiting factors for photosynthesis?
Low temperature, dim light and low carbon dioxide concentration.
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How can you measure the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis?
You measure it by measuring the rate at which oxygen is given off by a piece of pondweed.
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What happens to the rate of photosynthesis?
If the temperature is too high, enzymes start to denature and the rate of photosynthesis slows down.
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Why is CO2 a limiting factor?
It is a limiting factor because an increase in its concentration increases the rate of photosynthesis. There is more CO2 to use to make sugars.
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Why is temperature a limiting factor?
It is a limiting factor because an increase in temperature increase the kinetic energy of molecules and increases the rate of enzyme activity making photosynthesis faster.
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How can you investigate the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis?
You an investigate this by measuring the change in pH of solution around algal balls.
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Why does the pH change?
The pH changes because carbon dioxide forms an acidic solution, and photosynthesis changes the concentration of carbon dioxide in this solution
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Instead of distance how can light intensity be measured?
Light intensity could be measured directly using a light meter.
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What does phloem contain?
It contains sieve tube elements which have very little cytoplasm so that there is a lot of space to transport sucrose and other nutrients.
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What else does phloem contain? (other than sieve tube elements)
It also contains companion cells which have lots of mitochondria.
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What does mitochondria supply?
Mitochondria supplies energy from respiration for active transport of sucrose into and out of the sieve tubes.
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What are xylem vessels?
These vessels are dead cells which have no cytoplasm or cell contents which means there is more space for water containing mineral ions to move through.
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What does xylem vessels have and what do they do?
They have holes called pits in their walls to allow water and mineral ions to move through.
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What are the walls strengthened by and what do they do?
The walls are strengthened by lignin rings which makes them very strong and prevents them from collapsing.
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What does xylem not have?
Xylem does not have end walls so instead they form a long tube that water can flow through easily.
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What is transpiration?
Transpiration is the loss of water by evaporation from the leaves.
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What is the transpiration stream?
The movement of water form the roots to the leaves.
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Where is stomata mainly found?
Stomata is mainly found on the lower surface of the leaf.
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What happens when guard cells take in water by osmosis?
They swell up and this causes the stoma to open.
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What happens when the guard cells loose water?
They become flaccid and the stoma closes.
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What is translocation?
It is the transport of sucrose and other nutrients around a plant.
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Where is dissolved sucrose needed?
It is needed in growing regions (e.g. bud) for growth.
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Where is dissolved sucrose carried to?
It is carried around the plant in phloem.
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What are dissolved sugars converted to?
Dissolved sugars are converted to starch and are then stored in storage organs so that they can be used later.
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What can change the rate of water uptake in plants?
Environmental factors.
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If the factor is light intensity, what is the effect on transpiration?
The high light intensity causes the stomata to open. This increases the rate of evaporation of water from the leaf so more water is taken up to replace this.
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If the factor is air movement, what is the effect on transpiration?
Wind blows moist air away from the stomata, keeping the diffusion gradient high. So the more air movement there is, the higher the transpiration rate.
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If the factor is temperature, what is the effect on transpiration?
The higher the temperature, the more energy water molecules have, so they move faster which means a faster rate of transpiration.
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How can you measure the rate of transpiration?
You can measure the rate of transpiration using a potometer.
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How can the rate of transpiration be measured as?
distance moved/time taken
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What are hormones?
They are 'chemical messengers' that targets organs in the body.
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What are hormones produced by?
They are produced by endocrine glands and released into the blood. They travel around the body in the blood until they reach their target organs.
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What do nerves and hormones do?
They both help you to respond to changes in the environment and in your body.
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What effect does hormones have?
A long-lived effect.
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What effect do nerves have?
A short-term effect.
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What does the pituitary do?
Secretes ADH,FSH and LH.
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What does the hypothalumus do?
produces hormones that affect the pituitary gland.
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What does the thyroid do?
produces hormones that affect the rate of metabolism.
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What does the adrenal do?
secretes adrenalin
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What does the pancreas do?
secretes insulin and glucagon.
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What does the testis do?
secretes testostrerone
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What does the ovary do?
secretes oestrogen and progesterone.
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What does ADH stand for?
antidiuretic hormone
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What does FSH stand for?
follicle stimulating hormone.
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What does LH stand for?
luteinising hormone
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When does a menstrual cycle occur?
every 28 days
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What happens in the first week of the menstruation cycle?
The uterus lining breakdowns. This begins on the first day of the cycle and usually lasts around 5 days.
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What happens in the second week of the menstruation cycle?
The uterus lining gradually builds up.
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What happens in the third week of the menstruation cycle?
Fertilisation is most likely to take place around day 14 and 16.
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What happens in the fourth week of the menstruation cycle?
If fertilisation does occur, then the uterus lining is ,maintained and menstruation does not happen.
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What happens at day 14 of the menstruation cycle?
ovulation occurs.
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What is ovulation?
Is the release of an egg from an ovary.
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What happens between week 3 and 4?
The lining of the uterus continues to build up.
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What is contraception?
The prevention of fertilisation.
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List some barrier methods?
Male and female condoms, the diaphragm , caps and sponges.
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What does homeostasis do?
Maintains conditions inside the body at more or less constant levels, in response to internal and external changes.
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Blood glucose regulation is an example of homeostasis, what does the hormone insulin help to do?
The hormone insulin helps to control blood glucose concentration.
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What does it mean when someone has diabetes?
A person who cannot control their blood glucose concentration properly.
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What is the cause of type 1 diabetes?
The immune system has damaged the peron's insulin-secreting pancreatic cells, so the person does not produce insulin.
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How does a person control type 1 diabetes?
They have to inject insulin into the fat just below the skin. they have to work out the right amount of insulin to inject so that the blood glucose concentration is kept within safe limits.
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What is the cause of type 2 diabetes?
The person does not produce insulin but their liver and muscle cells have become resistant to it.
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How do people control type 2 diabetes?
Most people can control their blood glucose concentration by eating foods that contain less sugar, exercising and using medication if needed.
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What is the formula for working out somebody's BMI?
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)
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List the substances that need to be transported into and out of organisms?
Oxygen,carbon dioxide, water, dissolved food molecules,mineral ions and urea.
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What happens when organisms get bigger?
Their surface area to volume ratio gets smaller. This means they cannot rely on diffusion. They need to have specialised exchanged surfaces and transport systems.
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If the substance is oxygen, what is the site of exchange and the reason for the exchange.
Alveoli in the lungs. Needed for respiration.
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If the substance is carbon dioxide, what is the site of exchange and the reason for the exchange.
Alveoli in the lungs. Waste product of metabolism.
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If the substance is water, what is the site of exchange and the reason for the exchange.
Nephrons in the kidney. Needed for cells to function properly.
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If the substance is dissolved food molecules, what is the site of exchange and the reason for the exchange.
Small intestine. Needed for respiration.
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If the substance is mineral ions, what is the site of exchange and the reason for the exchange.
Small intestine. Needed for cells to function properly.
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If the substance is urea, what is the site of exchange and the reason for the exchange.
Nephrons in the kidney. Waste product of metabolism.
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Special organs are adapted to make exchange efficient, why are the lungs adapted?
To exchange gases .
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Why is the small intestine adapted?
To exchange solutes.
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Why is alveoli adapted?
Adapted for gas exchange by diffusion between air in the lungs and blood in the cappillaries.
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What are the lungs part of?
The breathing system.
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What is the breathing system?
The breathing system takes air into and out of the body.
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What happens in the lungs?
Oxygen diffuses from the air into the blood, carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the air.
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What do the millions of alveoli do in the lungs?
they create a large surface area for diffusion of gases.
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How many walls thick are capillaries and what does it do?
Their walls are 1 cells thick which minimising diffusion distance.
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What are the 4 main parts that make up blood?
Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platetes
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What part of blood is plasma?
Liquid part.
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What does plasma do?
Plasma carries blood cells through the blood vessels.
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Which dissolved substances does plasma contain?
Carbon dioxide and glucose.
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Are white blood cells larger than red blood cells?
Yes.
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What does the immune system do?
Attacks pathogens in the body.
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Do platelets have a nucleus?
No.
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What is the function of the platelets?
Their function is to cause blood to clot when a blood vessel is damaged. The clot blocks the wound and prevents pathogens getting into the body.
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What are the three types of blood cells?
Arteries, veins and capillaries.
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What are the properties of veins?
Veins have a large space for blood to flow easily back to the heart, and they have a thinner wall than an artery. Veins also have valves to stop blood flowing backwards, so that it is returned to the heart.
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What are the properties of arteries?
Arteries have space where blood can flow and they have a thick wall of muscle and elastic fibres.
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What are capillaries adapted for?
Capillaries are adapted for their function of exchanging substances between the blood and body cells.
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What is the function of the heart?
Pumps blood around the body.
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What does the heart and blood vessels make up (which system) ?
Circulatory system.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why are plants called producers?

Back

They are called producers because they produce their own food.

Card 3

Front

What are photosynthetic organisms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is biomass?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the photosynthesis equation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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