Biology Option D: Human Physiology

Nutrient
Chemical Substance in food
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What Nutrients
Carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acid, protein, minerals & vitamins
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Minerals
Electrolytes. Ingestion, ionic form. Iron, calcium. Small amounts needed, synthesized in body.
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Vitamins
Organic, diverse group. We can't produce them.
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Vitamin C
C: Ascorbic acid (from plants and animals)
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Vitamin D
Deficiencies: Adult: soft bones easy to break. Osteomalacia. Children:Curved noes rickets.
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Fatty Acids
Adipose tissue & phospholipids. Source of energy, Omega 3 & 6. Saturated & unsaturated
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Amino Acids
There's 20, 9 are essential. Must be eaten, for protein formation. Deficencies: one staple crop
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(PKU)
Pheylketonuria. Automsomal Recessive, not on sex chromosome. Genetic, Can't produce phenylanine. Mental, behavioural, seizures.
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Satiety
sufficient quantity of food eaten.
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Appetite & Satiety
Feedback loops from nervous, digestive, endocrine systems.
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Hypothalamus
controls appetite. In brain. With hormones, leptin, nervous signals.
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Malnutrition
: Eating to much or too little. Dificiency or imbalance.
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Deficiencies, malnutrition
Body first uses glycogen and fat. Muscles brake dowb to break down protein to energy. Then skeletal muscles and the heart. Povery or psychological diseases.
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Excess of nutrients
Obesity. Hyoertension, Type II diabetes, Atherosclerosis.
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Hypertension
Incr. blood pressure. More body tissue, more blood needed for oxygen transportation. High pressure, arteries, veins. Coronary disease,
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Type II Diabetes
Excessive sugar consumption. High insulin production. Pancreas harmed, desensitize body cells.
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Altherosclerosis
High intake of animal products, high cholesterol concentration in the blood. Plaque in blood vessels. Coronary disease, heart attack.
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Determin energy content in food.
Combustion. Calorimeter. released energy (combustion)= energy content of food.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acid, protein, minerals & vitamins

Back

What Nutrients

Card 3

Front

Electrolytes. Ingestion, ionic form. Iron, calcium. Small amounts needed, synthesized in body.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Organic, diverse group. We can't produce them.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

C: Ascorbic acid (from plants and animals)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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