Biology: Movement of Substances

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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. It does not require a membrane.
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What factors affect the rate of diffusion?
Increase in concentration means and increase in rate. Increase in temperature means increase in rate. Increase in distance means decrease in rate. Increase in surface area to volume ratio means increase is rate.
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What is osmosis?
Osmosis is a special type of diffusion where there is a net movement of particles from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration across a partially permeable membrane.
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Solute, solvent and solution.
Solute is a substance ( solid ) that dissolves. Solvent is the liquid that the solute dissolves. Solution is the solute plus the solvent
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What is active transport?
Active transport is when particles move against a concentration gradient, through a semi permeable membrane. Energy is required ( to make the pumps move that particles the wrong way )
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Examples of each in the body
Diffusion in the alveoli ( oxygen and carbon dioxide ). Salts and minerals from water are transferred through osmosis and active transport in the late stage of diffusion ( with glucose ).
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Examples of each in plants
Diffusion in the leaves ( transporting carbon dioxide in ). In the root of plants to collect water by osmosis and later continued by active transport.
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3 examples in our body of where diffusion takes place.
Lungs, intestines and the blood.
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Examples of substances that are moved by diffusion.
Oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, water, calcium, sodium, potassium and digested food products ( e.g. amino acids ).
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How are alveoli adapted for their function?
They have thin walls ( one cell thick ), exchange substances directly from the alveoli to the capillary, moist ( making gas molecules easy to dissolve ) and a large surface area.
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How is the small intestines adapted to encourage diffusion?
It has lots of villi to increase surface area. The villi have 1 cell thick walls to increase the rate of diffusion.
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Plasmolysed/Shrink.
Lower water concentration outside cell so water leaves the cell through osmosis. ( Plasmolysed in plants and Shrink/hypertonic in animal cells ).
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Turgid/Lysis
Higher water concentration outside cell means that water enters the cell through osmosis. ( Turgid in plants and lysis/hypotonic in animal cells).
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Why are some materials unable to diffuse?
Because they are too big.
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Passive/active.
Diffusion and osmosis are pass ( do not require energy ) while active transport is active ( requires energy ).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Increase in concentration means and increase in rate. Increase in temperature means increase in rate. Increase in distance means decrease in rate. Increase in surface area to volume ratio means increase is rate.

Back

What factors affect the rate of diffusion?

Card 3

Front

Osmosis is a special type of diffusion where there is a net movement of particles from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration across a partially permeable membrane.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Solute is a substance ( solid ) that dissolves. Solvent is the liquid that the solute dissolves. Solution is the solute plus the solvent

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Active transport is when particles move against a concentration gradient, through a semi permeable membrane. Energy is required ( to make the pumps move that particles the wrong way )

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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