Biology-Key Terms

What is osmosis?
a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one
1 of 31
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms
2 of 31
What are enzymes?
Enzymes are biological catalysts. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions
3 of 31
Types of enzymes
Proteases, Lipases and Amylases
4 of 31
Proteases:
split proteins into small peptides and amino acids
5 of 31
Lipases:
split fat into three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule
6 of 31
Amylases:
split carbohydrates such as starch and sugars into simple sugars such as glucose
7 of 31
Formula for glucose:
C6H12O6
8 of 31
Formula for anaerobic respiration:
glucose → lactic acid (+ energy)
9 of 31
Formula for aerobic respiration:
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)
10 of 31
What is an ecosystem?
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
11 of 31
What is a population?
A community of animals, plants or humans
12 of 31
What is a community?
A group of interdependent plants or animals growing or living together in natural conditions or occupying a specific habitat
13 of 31
What is a quadrat?
A portable frame, typically with an internal grid, used to mark out a certain plot of land
14 of 31
What are some short term effects of alcohol?
Slurred speech & Anemia (loss of red blood cells)
15 of 31
What are some long term effects of alcohol?
Cancer of the mouth and throat, strokes - possibly even death
16 of 31
Why is heroin so addictive?
People who take heroin feel no pain or discomfort at all. Since heroin is so powerful, it stresses the brain cells. The user might need heroin in order to avoid painful physical symptoms associated with withdrawal symptoms
17 of 31
Why is cocaine so addictive?
Cocaine is notoriously impure and is often cut with other substances; including laxatives and benzocaine – (a dental anaesthetic) which imitates the numbness which often comes with taking cocaine
18 of 31
What is sickle cell anemia?
A severe hereditary form of anaemia in which a mutated form of haemoglobin distorts the red blood cells into a crescent shape at low oxygen levels.
19 of 31
What is diabetes?
A disease in which the body’s ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired, resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood
20 of 31
How long does the menstrual cycle normally last for?
21-35 days, however the period normally lasts 3-7 days in between this
21 of 31
Types of hormone (female)
Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone
22 of 31
Oestrogen:
A female sex hormone produced by the ovaries and the adrenal gland. Estrogen helps to retain calcium in bones and regulates the balance of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the bloodstream.
23 of 31
Progesterone:
A female sex hormone produced in largest amounts during and after ovulation that prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized egg
24 of 31
Testosterone:
Affects libido, mood, energy, body fat. It also helps protect the bones against osteoporosis
25 of 31
Types of hormone (male)
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Testosterone & Androstenedione
26 of 31
Androgen:
An androgen is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in humans and aniamls
27 of 31
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA):
The main androgen for both men and women; DHEA is metabolized to form testosterone and androstenedione
28 of 31
Testosterone:
increases bone and muscle mass in men (and women)
29 of 31
Androstenedione:
A steroid produced in the adrenal gland. It is a precursor to testosterone and other male hormones (androgens). Known popularly as andro, it has been used as a supplement to increase muscle strength.
30 of 31
What do steroids do to your body?
When taken in doses higher than the amount your body normally produces, steroids reduce redness and swelling (inflammation). This can help with inflammatory conditions such as asthma and eczema. Steroids also reduce the activity of the immune system
31 of 31

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Diffusion is the movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms

Back

What is diffusion?

Card 3

Front

Enzymes are biological catalysts. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Proteases, Lipases and Amylases

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

split proteins into small peptides and amino acids

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Medicine and drugs resources »