biology- heart and blood

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  • Created by: Izzybc
  • Created on: 02-11-15 13:54
What are the 6 functions of the circulatory system?
1) supplies oxygen and glucose for respiration 2) supplies other nutrients such as hormones 3) carries white blood cells for immuntiy 4) removes waste products ( CO2, water, urea, salt 5) distributes heat 6)platelets and fibrinogen/fibrin- clotting
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What is the circulatory system?
the system which transports substances from where they enter the body to the cells, or from the cells to where they are removed from the body
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what makes up the circulatory system?
the heart, the blood, and the blood vessels (capillaries, veins and arteries)
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What is the heart?
a muscle that undergoes cycles of relaxation and contraction continuously throughout one's life
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Where is the heart?
to the left side of the chest
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What are the coronary arteries and what do they do?
They are the arteries on the surface of the heartthat supply the heart with oxygen so the muscle cells can respire and release energy for the cardiac muscle to contract
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What is the function of the pacemaker and where is it?
the pacemaker is a group of cells which send electrical impulses to the heart muscles to make them contract at a steady rate (it is in the wall of the right atrium)
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Which side of the heart deals with oxygenated blood?
the left side
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which side deals with deoxygenated blood?
the right
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Label plez .
1) oxgenated blood 2) deeoxygenated blood 3) left atrium 4) left ventricle 5) aorta 6) repiring cells 7) vena cava 8) right atrium 9) right ventricle 10) pulmonary artery 11) lungs 12) pulmonary vein
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describe the contraction in the heart...
The atria contract first and force the blood down into the ventricles. The ventricles then contract to force blood out of the heart through the arteries
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1)when blood leaves the left ventricle it travels through the aorta which takes oxygen rich blood to the body respiring cells 2) this blood comes back without oxygen through the vena cava into the right atrium
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3) the rght ventricle contracts to push deoxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery 4) in the lungs the capillaries pick up oxygen 5) the oxygenated blood travels back to the left atrium through the pulmonary vein
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wtf is the point of the valves
the valves cl prevent the backflow of blood- making sure the blood travels in one direction around the body
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wtf is the point of the tendons
they prevent valves from flipping in the wrong direction or turning inside out
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Talk about the walls of the vessels lul
veins- thin walls, arteries- very thick walls, capillaries- walls are made from one layer of cells
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talk about the pressure in the vessels lul
veins- very low pressure (1-2mm Hg) arteries- high pressure (120mm Hg) capillaries- quite low pressure (1 -10 mm Hg)
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talk about them in relation to the heart
veins- lead towards the heart, arteries- lead away from the heart, capillaries- not connected directly to the heart
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which vessel(s) contain valves?
veins- contain valves to stop backflow of blood
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talk about where THEY AAAARE
veins- mostly under the surface of the skin or buried in muscles, arteries- mostly deep beneath the skin surface, capillaries- found throughout all tissue
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Which often changes the diameter of the lumen?
arteries (the others NEVER)
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how do they cope with pressure?
veins- thin elastic layer to avoid collapsing at low pressures, arteries- wall contains tick elastic layer to cope with high pressur, capillaries- wall bursts under pressure
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What causes coronary heart disease ?
fatty deposits, called plaques build up in the coronary arteries, reducing the diameter of the coronary arteries. this means that there is a poor supply of oxygen to the heart muscles
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What are the symptoms of CHD?
angina-servere pain in the chest, heart attacks, unusual breathlessness due to low oxygen supply to heart
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How can CHD be treated?
stent- made of metal mesh, it is inserted into the narrowed section of the artery. The ballon inside the the stent inflates- causing it to expand and then become lodged in the artery, keeping the artery open so the heart muscles recieve enough oxygen
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How can valves become fautly ?
they can either harden- meaning they cannot open and close properly// or they become weak and leaky- allowing blood to leak backwards into the atria when the ventricles contract
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What effect does a faulty valve have on a person?
a faulty valve causes a person to become breathless as the heart is not working efficiently
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What can faulty valves be replaced with?
biological valves- human/animal valves, or mechanical valves- made of manufactured materials such as carbon fibre- they are designed to mimic natural heart valves: they are a ring shape to support the leaflets and open and close with every heart beat
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When is an arificial heart (aka ventricular assistance device) used?
when a persons ventricles are unable to pump enough blood though the arteries at the right pressure (ventricular faliure). They are occasionally used to keep patients alive whilst waiting for a heart transplant
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What is blood?
a tissue consisting of a fluid called plasa in which the white blood cells, platelets and red blood cells are suspended
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How are the red blood cells adapted for circulation?
They contain a red pigment called haemoglobin- which combines with oxgen to form oxyhaemoglobin// they also have no nucleus to allow more room to carry haemoglobin
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Where does haemoglobin combine with oxygen?
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Where is the reaction reversed?
in the organs- the oxyhaemoglobin splits up into haemoglobin and oxygen. the oxygen then passes out into the cells of the organ
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what are platelets?
cell fragments of red and white blood cells. they help blood clot at the site of a wound
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What is blood-clotting?
an example of an enzyme controlled reaction where fibrinogen is changed to fibrin. fibrin then forms a network of fibres trapping blood cells to form a clot
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what is plasma?
the fluid that transports carbon dioxide from the organs to the lungs, soluble products of digestion from the small intestine to other organs, urea from the liver to the kidneys.
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nam three soluble products of digestion which the plasma transports
glucose, amino acids and urea
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Card 2


What is the circulatory system?


the system which transports substances from where they enter the body to the cells, or from the cells to where they are removed from the body

Card 3


what makes up the circulatory system?


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Card 4


What is the heart?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Where is the heart?


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