Biology GCSE AQA - CELLS

What are eukaryotic cells?
Animal and plant cells
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What are prokaryotic cells?
Bacteria cells
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How do you calculate sizes and orders of magnitude?
size of the bigger object/size of the small object
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What can embryonic stem cells do?
Become any type of specialised cell
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What is a plant stem cell?
An unspecialised cell that can differentiate into any type of plant
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Where are plant stem cells found?
Root tips + shoot tips + stem
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What is differentiation?
When an unspecialised cell turns into a specialised cell
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What does DNA do?
Codes for different proteins
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What is needed if a protein is produced?
The gene needs to be switched on
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What happens if specialised cells work together?
They make tissues
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Where is epithelial tissue?
The inner layer of cells
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What does muscle tissue do?
Contracts to churn food and and digestive juices
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What does glandular tissue do?
Releases digestive juices e.g. enzymes
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Whats the correct statement about a light microscope?
Magnifies cells and sub-cellular structures
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What's the correct statement about a TEM?
It has a magnification up to 2,000,000
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What's the correct statement about a SEM?
It has a lower magnification that TEM
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What's the equation for total magnification?
eyepiece magnification x objective magnification
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Pick the equation relating image size, magnification and specimen size
magnification = image size/ specimen size
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What is diffusion?
Net movement of particles from a high to a low concentration
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What quickens the rate of diffusion?
If the concentration gradient is bigger
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When do the particles in diffusion stop moving randomly?
When equilibrium is reached
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What's the carbon dioxide conc. like inside a leaf compared to the air outside
It's lower because it's being used up in cells
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What's the oxygen conc. like inside a leaf compared to the air outside
It's higher because it's being produced in the cells
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What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water from a high conc. to a low conc. across a partially a permeable membrane
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How is osmosis different to diffusion?
There is no net movement because it has reached equilibrium
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What does isotonic mean?
Conc. of solutions outside and inside cell are equal
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What does hypotonic mean?
Conc. outside cell is lower than inside the cell
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What does hypertonic mean?
Conc. outside the cell is higher that the conc. inside the cell
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Name when osmosis is diffusing out of the cell
Plasmolysed - Hypertonic
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Name when osmosis will occur into the cell
Turgid - Hypotonic
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Name when there is no net movement in osmosis
Flaccid
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How is a cell made turgid?
When the water pressure builds up and pushes against the cell wall
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What's the fancy word for when the water outside and inside a plant cell is equal
Flaccid
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What is active transport?
Movement of substances from a low to a high concentration
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What is different about active transport and why?
It goes against the concentration gradient because it needs energy from mitochondria
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are prokaryotic cells?

Back

Bacteria cells

Card 3

Front

How do you calculate sizes and orders of magnitude?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What can embryonic stem cells do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a plant stem cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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