Biology: Gas exchange

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The respiratory system 1
The respiratory system is found in the thoracic cavity (chest) of the body. The thoracic cavity consists of the ribcage at the side and the diaphragm (curved sheet of muscle across the bottom).
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The respiratory system 2
The respiratory system comprises of many different structures and parts that all have a role in the process of breathing.
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Functions: Epiglottis
Prevents fluids/solid from entering the lunges.
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Functions: Larynx
Voice box
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Functions: Trachea
The wind pipe. Connects the mouth to the lungs.
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Functions: Pleural membranes
Prevents pathogens from getting in. The double layer that surrounds the lungs contains pleural fluid which prevents friction when breaking.
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Functions: Lungs
Where gas exchange happens. They expand and deflate during ventilation.
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Functions: Bronchi
Tubes that connect each lung to the trachea.
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Functions: Bronchioles
Smaller tubes that connect each lung to the trachea.
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Functions: Alveoli
Gas exchange happens here and oxygen is taken into the body while carbon dioxide is take out.
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Functions: Ribs and intercostal muscles
Contract/relax to increase/decrease pressure. Ribs protect main organs.
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Functions: Diaphragm
Contracts and flattens to increase/decrease volume.
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Ventilation
Scientific term for breathing where air is constantly moving in and out of the lungs.
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Inspiration
Also known as "inhalation", occurs when air pressure in the atmosphere is greater than that in the lungs; forcing air into of the alveoli.
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Expiration
Also know as "exhalation", occurs when air pressure in the lungs is greater than air pressure in the atmosphere; forcing air out of the lungs.
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The difference between respiration and ventilation
Respiration is the release of energy by breaking the bonds between a glucose molecule using oxygen while ventilation is simply the term used to mean air constantly moving in and out of the lungs.
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Ventilation 2
Ventilation requires pressure change to occur in the lungs. The pressure change is brought about by the movement of two sets of muscles (intercostal and diaphram)
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Aerobic respiration
Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon dioxide + Water (+Energy ).
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Anaerobic respiration
Glucose -> Lactic acid (+Energy)
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Tidal volume
The volume of air normally taken at each breath when the body is at rest.
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Vital capacity
The greatest volume o fair that can be expelled from the lungs after taking the deepest breath possiple.
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Residual volume
The amount of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a maximal inhalation.
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Total lung capacity
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the maximal inhalation.
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Adaptations of the alveoli
Large surface area to volume ratio - to speed up the rate of gas exchange. They have very thin walls to keep the diffusion pathway short. they have partially permeable membrane to selectively allow material to diffuse.
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Adaptations of the alveoli 2
Moist surfaces for gases to dissolve into and stop the air from drying out. There is a constant movement of blood to maintain a diffusion gradient.
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Card 2

Front

The respiratory system comprises of many different structures and parts that all have a role in the process of breathing.

Back

The respiratory system 2

Card 3

Front

Prevents fluids/solid from entering the lunges.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Voice box

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The wind pipe. Connects the mouth to the lungs.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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