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Factors affecting metabolic rate
levels of exercise -proportion of muscle cells to fat cells- the more muscle the higher the rate -inherited factors such as cholesterol level
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Metabolic rate
Rate at which chemical reactions take place in our cells
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Healthy diet
Right balance of different foods and the right amount of energy
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Unbalanced diets leads to
-deficiency diseases -type 2 diabetes
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Carbs, fats and proteins
For energy and building cells
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Minerals and vitamins
Healthy functioning of body
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Disease causing microorganisms eg bacteria and viruses
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How do pathogens make us ill?
-reproduce rapidly in the body -produce toxins If its viral infection, the viruses damage cells
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White blood cells
-ingest pathogens -produce antibodies specific to each pathogen which destroy the pathogen -produce antitoxins -they give immunity to specific pathogen
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-Contain small amounts of dead or inactive pathogen -stimulate white blood cells to make correct antibodies -on next exposure to same pathogen, the antibodies are produced rapidly and in greater number so the pathogen is destroyed Eg MMR
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doctor in 1850s -insisted on hand washing -death rates from childbed fever rapidly dropped
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-kill bacteria -can't kill viruses, as they reproduce inside cells -specific antibiotics kill specific bacteria 
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Resistant pathogens
-pathogens sometimes randomly mutate -new strain may be resistant to antibiotics -bacteria which isn't resistant is killed but resistant strain survive and reproduce -population of resistant strain increases -important not to overuse antibiotics
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Growing microbes in schools
need uncontaminated cultures of microbes -Petri dishes and growing media must be sterilised -inoculating loops must be flamed -dishes should be taped -maximum incubation temperature of 25°
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Light-cells in eyes Sound-ears Position-eaes Chemicals-tongues, nose Touch, pressure, pain, temperature-skin
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Reflex arc
receptor detects stimulus -impulse along sensory neurone -synapses with relay neurone, chemical released -impulse along relay neurone -synapse between relay and motor neurone, chemical released -impulse along motor neurone -to effector, muscle or gla
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Water content
Breathed out; via sweat; in urine
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Card 2


Rate at which chemical reactions take place in our cells


Metabolic rate

Card 3


Right balance of different foods and the right amount of energy


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Card 4


-deficiency diseases -type 2 diabetes


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Card 5


For energy and building cells


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