Biology F214: Excretion

Define excretion
"removal of the waste products from metabolism"
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The formation of urea has 2 process
Deamination and the Ornithine Cycle
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Amino Acids cannot be what in the body?
Stored - due to the amine groups
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Deamination converts amino acids into?
Ammonia (NH3) and Keto Acid
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Where is the Keto Acid used?
Respiration
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What characteristics does ammonia have?
Toxic and Soluble
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Ornithine Cycle combines ammonia with what?
Carbon Dioxide
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To form what?
Urea (and water)
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Why is urea better?
Less Toxic and less Soluble
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What other major role, apart from urea production does the liver have?
Detoxification
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What is detoxification?
Using enzymes to render toxic molecules less toxic
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What is an example of this enzyme in the liver, with a high turn over number?
Catalase
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This converts what into water and oxygen?
Hydrogen Peroxide
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The main detoxification occurs with what?
Alcohol
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What breaks down the alcohol?
Hepatocytes (liver cells)
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Ethanol converts to Ethanal using what?
Ethanol Dehydrogenase
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Ethanal converts to what, using what enzyme?
Ethanoic Acid using Ethanal Dehydrogenase
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Ethanoic Acid is combined with what to form Acetyl Coenzyme A?
Coenzyme A
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Where is Acetyle Coenzyme A used?
Respiration
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Increased usage of alcohol can result in what?
A 'Fatty Liver'
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Why?
More ATP formed, so less fats are needed, consequently they are stored
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What disease can this lead to?
Cirrhosis
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Oxygenated blood travels from the heart through the...
Aorta
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From the Aorta it enters the liver through the...
Hepatic Artery
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Deoxygenated blood travels from where?
Digestive System
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Travels into the liver through what?
Hepatic Portal Vein
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Blood leaves the liver through...
Hepatic Vein
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Bile Duct carries what to where?
Bile to the Gall Bladder
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What is the sinusoid?
Where the HPV and Hepatic Artery mix in the lobule
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What is the function of Kupffer Cells?
Break down old red blood cells in the sinusoids
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What are they?
Specialised macrophages
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Hepatocytes contain many?
Microvilli
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The formation of urea has 2 process

Back

Deamination and the Ornithine Cycle

Card 3

Front

Amino Acids cannot be what in the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Deamination converts amino acids into?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where is the Keto Acid used?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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