Biology - Enzymes

What are Enzymes?
Enzymes are biological catalists which reduce the need for high temperatures. Only used for used for useful chemical reactions in the body.
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What is a Catalyst?
A catalyst is a substance which increases the speed of a reaction without being changes or used up in the reaction.
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What are Enzymes made from?
Enzymes are proteins made up of chains of amino acids. These chains are folded into unique shapes, which Enzymes need to do their jobs.
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What ate the other used of Proteins?
They can act as structual components of tissues e.g muscles, hormones and antibodies.
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How many reactions can an enzyme catalyse?
One - Key and lock.
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Why can enzymes only catalyse one reaction?
For the enzyme to work, it has ti fit its special shape. If the substances don't fit the enzymes shape, then the reaction won't be catalysed.
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What do enzymes need to work?
The correct temperature and pH.
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What happens to an enzyme reaction if you increase the temperature?
Initially, it will increase the rate, but if it gets too hot, some of the bonds holding the enzyme together break. This destroys the enzymes special shape and it is said to be 'denatured'.
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What is the best temperature for an enzyme to work in the human body?
37 oC
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What is the best pH for an enxyme to work?
It is often neutral pH7 , but not always e.g. Pepsin is the enzyme used to break down protiens in the stomach. It works best ar pH2, which means it is well suited to the acidic conditions.
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What do digestive enzymes do?
Break down bigger molecules into smaller ones.
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What are big molecules?
Starch, proteins and fats - these are too big to pass through the walls of the digestive system
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What molecules are small enough to pass easily through the walls of the digestive system?
Sugars, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids
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What does Amylase do?
It converts starch into sugars
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Where is Amylase produced?
The pancreas
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What does Protease do?
It converts proteins into amino acids
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Where is protease produced?
The stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine
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What does Lipase do?
It converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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Where is Lipase made?
The pancreas, the small intenstine
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Where is Bile made?
Bile is made in the liver and is stored in the gall bladder before being released into the small intestine.
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What dies Bile do?
The hydrochloric scid in the stomach makes it too acidic for the enzymes in the small intestine to work. Bile is alkaline and it neutralises the acid making the conditions more alkaline for the enzymes to work. It also emulsifies fat.
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What does emulsify mean?
It means the breaking down of fat into smaller droplets, thereby increasing the surface area for lipase to work and making digestion faster.
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What is respiration?
It is the process of releasing enery from glucose which goes on in every cell and is controlled by enzymes.
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What is aerobic respiration?
It is respiration using oxygen. It is the most efficient way to release energy from glucose. GLUCOSE + OXYGEN = CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER + ENERGY
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Where does aerobic respiration happen?
In the mitochondiria
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Card 2

Front

What is a Catalyst?

Back

A catalyst is a substance which increases the speed of a reaction without being changes or used up in the reaction.

Card 3

Front

What are Enzymes made from?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What ate the other used of Proteins?

Back

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Card 5

Front

How many reactions can an enzyme catalyse?

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