Biology Dr Matthews

What bonds do non metal atoms form?
Covalent bonds
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What bonds do metal and non metal atoms form?
Ionic
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What are the elements which make up 99% of us?
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen (sulfur and phosphorus)
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What is 70% of the body made up of?
Water
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What is the other 30% made up of?
Chemicals
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What is 1% of chemicals made up of?
DNA
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What are the two chemicals which make up the chemicals?
Phospholipids and polysaccharides
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What is 6% of the chemicals made up of?
RNA
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How much of the 30% is proteins?
15%
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What are calcium ions for?
Nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
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What are sodium ions for?
Nerve impulse contraction and kidney function
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What are potassium ions for?
Nerve impulse transmission and stomatal opening
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What are hydrogen ions for?
Catalysis of reactions and pH detrermination
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What are ammonium ions for?
Production of nitrate ions by bacteria
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What are nitrate ions for?
Nitrogen supply to plants for amino acid and protein formation
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What are chloride ions for?
Balance positive charge of sodium and potassium ions in cells
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What are phosphate ions for?
Cell membrane formation, bone nuclei acid and ATP formation
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What are hydroxide ions for?
Catalyst of reactions and pH determination
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What are hydrogen carbonate ions for?
Maintainance of blood pH
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Why is university solvent a good property of water?
Means water can dissolve many substances
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What’s its biological role?
Enables many chemical reactions to occur in cytoplasms and enables substances to be transported
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Why is a high specific heat capacity a good property of water?
It can resist temperature changes
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What’s it biological role?
Provides a stable environment within cells and for aquatic life
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What is the biological role for water being liquid at room temperature?
Provides a liquid environment for cells and aquatic organisms
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Why is a high latent heat if vapourization a good property of water?
Needs a lot of energy to be turned into gas
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What’s it biological role?
Evaporation from the surface provides a cooling effect
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Why is a high latent heat of fusion a good property of water?
Needs a lot of energy to turn it into ice
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What’s its biological role?
Water in cells and aquatic habitats are slow to freeze so provides a stable environment
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Why is density a good property of water?
Less dense then water for floating because a lattice holds them further apart
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What’s its biological role?
Ice floats enabling aquatic organisms to survive in the water under ice
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Why is wetness a good property of water?
Cohesion= when hydrogen bonds form and stick together, and also water can stick to other polar substances= adhesive
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Why is capillarity a good property of water?
Means water can move up very thin tubes because it’s cohesive and adhesive
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What’s its biological role?
Allows plants to survive so water can travel up the stem
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Why is colour a good property of water?
So light can travel through it so aquatic life and plants can survive and photosynthesise
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Why is low viscosity a good property of water?
Helps capillary flow in plants
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Why is being difficult to compress a good property of water?
Structural support in plants and animals
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What properties of water are important for blood?
Good polar solvent, capillarity, low viscosity, cohesion and adhesion and coolant
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What properties of water are important for mitochondria?
Liquid, allows reactants to occur, polar solvent, substrate for some chemical reactions
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What are the three main groups of carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides
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How do you form disaccharides?
In a condensation reaction which produces water
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What bonds forms in a disaccharide?
A 1 4 glycosidic bond
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How do you break a glycosidic bond?
Using a hydrolysis reaction (add water)
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What does glucose+ glucose make?
Maltose
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What does glucose and galactose make?
Lactose
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What does glucose and fructose make?
Sucrose
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What type of reaction is needed when joining monosaccharides together?
Condensation reaction which also makes water
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What is the opposite reaction to condensation reaction?
Hydrolysis
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What do u do to start a hydrolysis reaction?
Add water to break the glycosidic bond
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What is a pentose monosaccharides?
Molecule which contains 5 carbon atoms
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What are two examples of pentose monosaccharides?
Ribose=RNA, deoxyribose=DNA
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What are the two types of starch?
Amylose and amylopectin
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What is amylose and amylopectin made of?
Alpha glucose
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What is the structure and bond of amylose?
Compact helical structure with a 1-4 glycosidic bond
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What is the structure and bond of amylopectin?
Branched structure with a 1-4 glycosidic by bond
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Where are both amylose and amylopectin (starch) both found?
In plastids (organelles) in chloroplasts or amyloplasts
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What are the key feature of amylose?
Good as storage, insoluble, compact because of helical structure
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What are the key feature of amylopectin?
Good as storage, insoluble and easily hydrolised to release glucose monomers
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What is the structure of glycogen?
Branched alpha glucose with a 1-6 glycosidic bond
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Where is glycogen found?
Liver and muscle cells and fungi
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What are key features of glycogen?
Less dense and is more soluble than starch for quick energy sources, used for storage as well
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What is the structure and bonds of cellulose?
Beta glucose with a 1-4 glycosidic bond with every other beta rotating 180 degrees
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What are microfibriles to do with glucose chains?
Glucose chains are joined together by hydrogen bonds
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Where is cellulose found?
Makes cell walls and in human faeces
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What is the key feature of cellulose?
Most common organic polymer on earth which is very strong, is a polysaccharide and insoluble
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Name reducing sugars
Glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose and galactose
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Name non reducing sugar
Sucrose
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What can reducing sugar do?
Donate electrons or reduce another molecule or chemical
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How does benedicts solution change colour?
Copper (II) sulfate gains and electron from a reducing sugar turning it from blue to red
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What are the six functions of lipids?
Energy storage, energy source, membrane formation, insulation (electrical and thermal), protection of plant (waxy cuticle), some hormones
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What type of bond does a saturated fat have?
Single carbon bond
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What type of bond does an unsaturated fat have?
Double and single carbon bond
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What does the shape of the fat depend on ?
Wether it’s healthy or unhealthy
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What is a triglyceride made of?
Three fatty acid chains and one glycerol
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What elements are triglycerides made of?
Oxygen, hydrogen and carbon
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What diseases can be caused by high triglycerides levels?
Diabetes, obesity, chd
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What are the properties of lipids?
Insulation, energy, insoluble in water, fats oils waxes, supply th emits energy per unit fat
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What are the properties of carbohydrates?
Immediately used in respiration, glucose monomers, soluble apart from in stores
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What are the two subcategories of unsaturated fatty acids?
Trans or cis
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What is the difference between cis and trans fats?
Just the way the atoms/ groups are arranged around a double bond
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How are cis fats arranged?
The two ch2 groups at the top with the two h groups at the bottom
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How are trans fats arranged?
One ch2 group and h at the top and another ch2 and h at the bottom
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How does a cis fats arrangement affect its properties?
The arrangement creates the greatest kink so chains can’t pack closely together which results in weak attractive forces between chains leading to a liquid lipid rather than a solid
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Why are saturated fat molecules straight?
Because they contain only single carbon carbon bonds
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What is the basic structure of every amino acid?
One r group, one carboxyl group and one amine group
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What is different in each amino acid?
The r group and the range of chemicals it contains
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What are five of the 20 amino acids for?
Non essential roles so the body can make them
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What are six of the 20 amino acids needed for?
Conditional essential ness by children and infants
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What’s are nine of the 20 amino acids needed for?
Essential things as they can only be obtained by food
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What is a peptide?
A polymer made of amino acid molecules
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How to amino acids join?
By the amine and carboxyllic group connecting via the central atom
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What reacts when the bonds are formed between amino acids?
The hydroxyl in the carboxyllic group and the hydrogen in the amine group of another amino acid
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What is the result of a dipeptide forming?
A water molecule being released from the condensation reaction
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How do you break a peptide bond?
By adding water to start a hydrolysis reaction
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What is a polypeptide?
Many peptides joined together
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What is the catalyst called when forming a polypeptide?
Preptidyl transferase (in ribosomes)
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What makes polypeptides fold differently?
The different types of bond which form from different r groups in different amino acids
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Why’s the shape of a polypeptide so important?
Because different shapes means different functions
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What is the primary structure of a protein?
A sequence of amino acids joined directed by DNA instructions
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What are the bonds in the primary structure of a protein?
Peptide bonds only
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What is the secondary structure of a protein?
When the oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen atoms of amino acids in terrace
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Which bonds are used in the secondary structure?
Hydrogen bonds which pull the protein into a alpha helix or beta sheet of amino acids
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What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
Folding of the protein into final structure which brings different r groups together so they can interact and fold further
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What are the different bonds and interactions between the tertiary structure of the protein?
Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between polar and non polar r groups (weak), hydrogen bonds (weakest), ionic bonds between opposite r groups, disulfide bonds (bridges) covalent and strongest
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What do all the bonds and interactions do in the teritairy structure?
Produce a very complex shape with specialised characteristics and functions
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What is the quaternary structure of a protein?
From association of two or more individual proteins called subunits
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What are the bonds between quaternary structure?
They are the same as the ones in the tertiary structure between two proteins instead of one
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What types of subunits are enzymes made of ?
Two identical ones
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What types of subunits is insulin made from?
Two different ones
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What types of subunits is haemoglobin made from?
Four subunits with two identical pairs
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What depends on the way the protein folds?
The different r groups in the amino acids and if they are hydrophobic or hydrophilic
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Where do hydrophobic groups arrange themselves in a protein?
Inside the protein (shielded from water)
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Where do hydrophilic groups arrange themselves in a protein?
Outside of the protein
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How are peptides broken down?
By adding water to break the peptide bond which is catalysed by the enzyme protease which separates the amine and carboxyllic groups
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What is thin layer chromatography used for?
To separate individual components of a mixture eg, separate and identify mixture of amino acid in solution
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What are the two phases of thin layer chromatography ?
Mobile and stationary
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What does the mobile phase do ?
Pick up the amino acids and move then through the stationary phase
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What is applied to the stationary phase?
On top of a rigid substance (metal/ glass) a thin layer of silicone gel is applied
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How is thin layer chromatography carried out?
Like normal chromatography, then adding indicator to the results to observe the spots
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What is the equation for rF value?
Distance moved by substance divided by distance moved by solvent
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What are the two types of nucleaic acid?
DNA , RNA
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What elements do nucleotides and nucleic acid contain ?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
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What does lots of nucleic acid make?
Nucleotides
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What is an individual nucleotide made of?
Pentose monosaccharide (5 C atoms), phosphate group (inorganic molecule), nitrogenous base ( complex organic molecule)
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What reaction is used to join nucleotides?
Condensation reactions
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What do the nucleotides bond to?
Pentose sugar covalently bonds with hydroxyl group
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What bond is between two nucleotides ?
A phosphodiester bond
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What give the DNA it’s strong sugar phosphate back bone?
The phosphodiester bonds
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How are phosphodiester bonds broken?
By hyrdrolysis
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What are the four different base pairs?
Thymine + adenine, cytosine + guanine
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Define pyramidines
Smaller bases with single carbon ring structures
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Define purines
Larger bases with double carbon ring structures
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What is the double helix structure of DNA?
Two stands of polynucleotides coiled into a helix
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How are the two DNA strands held together?
By hydrogen bonds between the bases
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Define anti parallel
Two strands of DNA arranged which run in the opposite direction
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What does the pairing of bases allow to happen?
DNA to be copied and transcribed
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How many hydrogen bonds are between thymine and adenine?
2
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How many hydrogen bonds are between cytosine and guanine?
3
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How do the bases link together?
By a small pyramindine base fitting into a large purine base
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What does a constant distance between the DNA backbone mean ?
That a parallel polynucleotide chain is maintained
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What does the sequence of bases mean?
Genetic coding and info
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What is role of RNA?
To transfer genetic info from DNA to proteins to make enzymes and tissues for body
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Why is the DNA copied into mRNA?
So it can fit through the nuclear pore
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What is RNA made of ?
A phosphate group and ribose and base
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What is different in RNA with thymine?
It’s replaced with a different base called uracil
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What is pentose sugar replaced with RNA?
The ribose
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What happens to RNA after it’s been used?
It dissolves in cytoplasm
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How does the RNA dissolve in the cytoplasm?
By the bonds being hydrolysed which releases the nucleotides which are reused
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How is DNA replicated?
Helix unwinds, hydrogen bonds are broken, nucleotides now open, free nucleotides join to open nucleotides, sugar phosphate backbone formed of new strand, DNA reforms
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What does DNA polymerase do?
Catalysts formation of phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides
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What does the DNA ligase enzyme do?
Joins DNA strands and forms phosphodiester bond
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What does the enzyme DNA helicase do ?
Unwinds and separates DNA strand
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What is the purpose of DNA?
Contains genetic info and codes for proteins
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What is a gene?
A hereditary unit which is a section of DNA
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What are the three types of protein?
Globular protein, conjugated protein and fibrous protein
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How do globular proteins form?
Fold into tertiary structure and the hydrophobic r group is kept away from the aqueous environmental and hydrophilic is on the outside of the protein
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What doe the structure of the globular protein enable it to do?
Make it soluble in water as they’re compact and a spherical shape as well
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What is an example of a globular protein ?
Insulin which is a hormone used for blood glucose regulation and so needs to be dissolved into blood stream and have a specific shape so they can fit into specific receptors in cell surface membrane s
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What are globular proteins sensitive to?
pH and temperature change
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What are conjugated proteins?
Proteins which contain a non protein component (prosthetic group)
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What is a protein without a prosthetic group called?
Simple protein
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Examples of prosthetic groups
Glycoproteins, lipoprotein and metal ions
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What is an example of a conjugated protein ?
Haemoglobin which is a quaternary protein which has two alpha and two beta subunits which each contain a prosthetic haem group
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How can haemoglobin deliver oxygen?
By the iron ions present in the haem group being able to reversibly combine with oxygen molecules
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Why are fibrous proteins long and insoluble?
Because they have a high proportion of amino acids with hydrophobic r groups in their primary structure e
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What are the properties and shape of a fibrous protein?
A strong long molecule which isn’t folded into a complex 3D shape which is insoluble
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What is an example of a fibrous protein ?
Elastin found in elastic fibres which give structures flexibility to expand and return to normal size
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What is a quaternary fibrous protein example?
Tropoelastin which can stretch and recoil like a spring and the structure is stabilised by cross linking covalent bonds involving amino acid lysine
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